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Synthesis of mediators of fever, pain and inflammation as well as protection against reactive molecules and oxidative stress is a hallmark of the MAPEG superfamily (membrane associated proteins in eicosanoid and glutathione metabolism). The structure of a MAPEG member, rat microsomal glutathione transferase 1, at 3.2 A resolution, solved here in complex(More)
Connexins form a family of membrane proteins that assemble into communication channels and directly connect the cytoplasms of adjoining cells. Malfunctioning of connexin channels often cause disease, such as the mutations M34T and R75W in human connexin 26, which are associated with hereditary deafness. Another residue known to be essential for normal(More)
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the predominant water channel in the mammalian brain and an important drug target for treatment of cerebral edema, bipolar disorder and mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. We determined the AQP4 structure by electron crystallography of double-layered, two-dimensional (2D) crystals. The structure allows us to discuss how the expression ratio(More)
Recently, two novel mammalian aquaporins (AQPs), AQPs 11 and 12, have been identified and classified as members of a new AQP subfamily, the "subcellular AQPs". In members of this subfamily one of the two asparagine-proline-alanine (NPA) motifs, which play a crucial role in selective water conduction, are not completely conserved. Mouse AQP11 (mAQP11) was(More)
Prostaglandins (PG) are bioactive lipids produced from arachidonic acid via the action of cyclooxygenases and terminal PG synthases. Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 (MPGES1) constitutes an inducible glutathione-dependent integral membrane protein that catalyzes the oxidoreduction of cyclooxygenase derived PGH(2) into PGE(2). MPGES1 has been implicated(More)
NMO-IgG, a disease-specific autoantibody for neuromyelitis optica, recognizes aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and has been examined by indirect immunofluorescence assay. We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect anti-AQP4 antibodies by establishing methods for expression in a baculovirus system and purification of recombinant AQP4 as antigen.(More)
Image shift due to beam-induced specimen charging has become the most severe problem in electron microscopy for imaging two-dimensional (2D) crystals of biological macromolecules, especially in the case of highly tilted specimens. Image shift causes diffraction spots perpendicular to the tilt axis to disappear even at medium or low resolution. The yield of(More)
The oligomeric state of human porphobilinogen synthase (PBGS) [EC.4.2.1.24] is homooctamer, which consists of conformationally heterogenous subunits in the tertiary structure under air-saturated conditions. When PBGS is activated by reducing agent with zinc ion, a reservoir zinc ion coordinated by Cys223 is transferred in the active center to be coordinated(More)
Electron crystallography of 2D protein crystals provides a powerful tool for the determination of membrane protein structure. In this method, data is acquired in the Fourier domain as randomly sampled, uncoupled, amplitudes and phases. Due to physical constraints on specimen tilting, those Fourier data show a vast un-sampled "missing cone" of information,(More)
The chaperonin GroEL interacts with various proteins, leading them to adopt their correct conformations with the aid of GroES and ATP. The actual mechanism is still being debated. In this study, by use of cryo-electron microscopy, we determined the solution structure of the Thermus thermophilus GroEL-GroES complex encapsulating its substrate proteins. We(More)