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p34cdc2 protein kinase is a universal regulator of M-phase in eukaryotic cell cycle. To investigate the regulation of meiotic and mitotic cell cycle in mammals, we examined the changes in phosphorylation states of p34cdc2 and its histone H1 kinase activity in mouse oocytes and embryos. We showed that p34cdc2 has three different migrating bands (referred to(More)
ABSTRACT Host-specific toxins are produced by three pathotypes of Alternaria alternata: AM-toxin, which affects apple; AK-toxin, which affects Japanese pear; and AAL-toxin, which affects tomato. Each toxin has a role in pathogenesis. To facilitate molecular genetic analysis of toxin production, isolation of toxin-deficient mutants utilizing ectopic(More)
Afternaria afternata apple pathotype causes Alternaria blotch of susceptible apple cultivars through the production of a cyclic peptide host-specific toxin, AM-toxin. PCR (polymerase chain reaction), with primers designed to conserved domains of peptide synthetase genes, amplified several products from A. alternata apple pathotype that showed high(More)
Host-specific toxin from the rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush) pathotype of Alternaria alternata (ACR toxin) was tested for effects on mitochondria isolated from several citrus species. The toxin caused uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation and changes in membrane potential in mitochondria from leaves of the susceptible host (rough lemon); the effects(More)
There are at least ten plant diseases caused by Alternaria species in which host-specific toxins (HSTs) are responsible for fungal pathogenicity. Of these HST-producers, seven are considered distinct pathotypes of the species Alternaria alternata, and the remaining three are among other species of pathogenic Alternaria. Inter- and intra-specific variation(More)
ABSTRACT Alternaria alternata apple pathotype (previously A. mali) causes Alternaria blotch on susceptible apple cultivars through the production of a host-specific toxin, AM-toxin. Identification of some Alternaria species, especially those that produce host-specific toxins, has been extremely difficult due to a high level of variability which extends even(More)
The Alternaria alternata apple pathotype causes Alternaria blotch of susceptible apple cultivars through the production of a cyclic peptide, host-specific toxin, AM-toxin. We recently cloned a cyclic peptide synthetase gene, AMT, whose product catalyzes the production of AM-toxin and showed that it resides on chromosomes of 1.8 Mb or less, depending on the(More)
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) plays a role in the cascade of protein kinase activation in cultured cells. To investigate the involvement of MAP kinase in meiotic maturation, we measured MAP kinase activity, using myelin basic protein as a substrate, with histone H1 kinase activity, in mouse oocytes. MAP kinase activity was low 1 h after(More)
Hamster sperm were immotile in the medium at free Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]) below 1 x 10(-4) M. The flagellum was acutely bent in the opposite direction to the curve of the hook-shaped heads. This phenomenon seemed to be caused by the decrease in the intracellular cAMP concentration, since the cAMP concentration was low at [Ca2+] below 1 x 10(-4) M and(More)
The relative levels and association of p34cdc2 and cyclin B1 have been determined in pig oocytes during meiotic progression from G2 to metaphase II (MII). Fully grown G2-arrested porcine oocytes contained large amounts of free p34cdc2 and extremely small amounts of p34cdc2-cyclin B1 complex which did not increase in amount during the GV stage. Cyclin B1 is(More)