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The growth of plants depends on continuous function of the meristems. Shoot meristems are responsible for all the post-embryonic aerial organs, such as leaves, stems and flowers. It has been assumed that the phytohormone cytokinin has a positive role in shoot meristem function. A severe reduction in the size of meristems in a mutant that is defective in all(More)
Sex-determining mechanisms are diverse among animal lineages and can be broadly divided into two major categories: genetic and environmental. In contrast to genetic sex determination (GSD), little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying environmental sex determination (ESD). The Doublesex (Dsx) genes play an important role in controlling sexual(More)
Recent studies of highly branched mutants of pea, Arabidopsis and rice have demonstrated that strigolactones (SLs) act as hormones that inhibit shoot branching. The identification of genes that work downstream of SLs is required for a better understanding of how SLs control the growth of axillary buds. We found that the increased tillering phenotype of fine(More)
In rice panicle development, new meristems are generated sequentially in an organized manner and acquire their identity in a time- and position-dependent manner. In the panicle of the panicle phytomer2-1 (pap2-1) mutant, the pattern of meristem initiation is disorganized and newly formed meristems show reduced competency to become spikelet meristems,(More)
Accumulating evidence indicates that overproduction of prostanoids attributable to overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays an important role in colon carcinogenesis. We have shown recently that the prostaglandin (PG) E receptor, EP(1), but not EP(3), is involved in mouse colon carcinogenesis. In line with our previous study, here we examined the(More)
BACKGROUND The recent development and spread of ultrasonography and ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) has facilitated the detection of small papillary microcarcinomas of the thyroid measuring 1 cm or less (PMC). The marked difference in prevalence between clinical thyroid carcinoma and PMC detected on mass screening prompted us to(More)
Constitutive active (or androstane) receptor (CAR, NR1I3), a member of the nuclear receptor family, is a major regulator for induction of cytochrome P450 2B (CYP2B) genes by phenobarbital. Phenobarbital-like inducer, 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene is a potent mouse CAR ligand that has been used to study CAR target genes in mice but does not(More)
BACKGROUND The incidence of papillary microcarcinoma (PMC) of the thyroid is rapidly increasing globally, making the management of PMC an important clinical issue. Excellent oncological outcomes of active surveillance for low-risk PMC have been reported previously. Here, unfavorable events following active surveillance and surgical treatment for PMC were(More)
Human CYP3A is the most abundant P450 isozyme present in the human liver and small intestine, and metabolizes around 50% of medical drugs on the market. The human CYP3A subfamily comprises four members (CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP3A7, CYP3A43) encoded on human chromosome 7. However, transgenic mouse lines carrying the entire human CYP3A cluster have not been(More)