Kaoru Kobayashi

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The growth of plants depends on continuous function of the meristems. Shoot meristems are responsible for all the post-embryonic aerial organs, such as leaves, stems and flowers. It has been assumed that the phytohormone cytokinin has a positive role in shoot meristem function. A severe reduction in the size of meristems in a mutant that is defective in all(More)
In this study, we performed a screening of the specificities of rat cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms for metabolic reactions known as the specific probes of human CYP isoforms, using 13 rat CYP isoforms expressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells or B-lymphoblastoid cells. Among the metabolic reactions studied, diclofenac 4-hydroxylation (DFH),(More)
OBJECTIVES SLCO1B1*5 and SLCO1B1*15 have been reported to reduce the clearance of pravastatin in healthy volunteers. However, there remains controversy in the effects of SLCO1B1*5 on the activity of OATP1B1 in vitro. In addition, the effect of SLCO1B1*15 on the function of OATP1B1 has not been studied using cDNA-expression systems. Object of the present(More)
Sex-determining mechanisms are diverse among animal lineages and can be broadly divided into two major categories: genetic and environmental. In contrast to genetic sex determination (GSD), little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying environmental sex determination (ESD). The Doublesex (Dsx) genes play an important role in controlling sexual(More)
The recent prevalence of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy has resulted in a marked increase in the number of patients with papillary microcarcinoma (maximum diameter, </= 10 mm) of the thyroid detected by this sophisticated tool. On the other hand, it is debatable whether patients with papillary microcarcinoma should always undergo surgery(More)
Accumulating evidence indicates that overproduction of prostanoids attributable to overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays an important role in colon carcinogenesis. We have shown recently that the prostaglandin (PG) E receptor, EP(1), but not EP(3), is involved in mouse colon carcinogenesis. In line with our previous study, here we examined the(More)
The nuclear constitutive active receptor (CAR) is a key transcription factor regulating phenobarbital (PB)-inducible transcription of various hepatic genes that encode xenobiotic/steroid-metabolizing enzymes. CAR is retained in the cytoplasm of noninduced livers and translocates into the nucleus after PB induction. HepG2 cells lack the capability of(More)
The aim of this study was to determine the selectivities of chemical inhibitors for human cytochrome P450 (P450) isoforms toward the corresponding rat P450 isoforms by using cDNA-expressed rat P450s (CYP1A2, CYP2A1, CYP2C6, CYP2C11, CYP2D2, CYP2E1, CYP3A1, and CYP3A2). Among the inhibitor probes for human P450s used in this study, only sulfaphenazole showed(More)
BACKGROUND We showed previously that subclinical low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) could be observed without immediate surgery. Patient age is an important prognostic factor of clinical papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). In this study, we investigated how patient age influences the observation of low-risk PTMC. METHODS Between 1993 and(More)
To improve the production of recombinant human antithrombin III (AT-III) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, the genes encoding transcription factors, ATF4 (activating transcription factor 4) and XBP-1s (the spliced form of X-box binding protein 1), which were involved in the mammalian unfolded protein response (UPR), were cloned from CHO-K1 cells.(More)