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Here we investigated the transduction characteristics of adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) serotypes 1, 2, 5, 8 and 9 in the marmoset cerebral cortex. Using three constructs that each has hrGFP under ubiquitous (CMV), or neuron-specific (CaMKII and Synapsin I (SynI)) promoters, we investigated (1) the extent of viral spread, (2) cell type tropism, and (3)(More)
Neurons in the superficial gray layer (SGS) of the superior colliculus receive visual input and excite intermediate layer (SGI) neurons that play a critical role in initiating rapid orienting movements of the eyes, called saccades. In the present study, two types of experiments demonstrate that a population of SGI neurons gives rise to a reciprocal pathway(More)
Drebrin A is a neuron-specific protein, the expression of which is regulated during development. Upon transfection of fibroblasts with drebrin A cDNA, the protein is expressed at high levels in fibroblasts and the outgrowth of highly branched, neurite-like cell processes is induced. In this report, we describe a biochemical examination of the binding of(More)
In slice preparations, electrical stimulation of the superficial gray layer (SGS) of the superior colliculus (SC) induces EPSC bursts in neurons in the intermediate gray layer (SGI) when GABA(A) receptor (GABA(A)R)-mediated inhibition is reduced. This preparation has been used as a model system to study signal processing involved in execution of(More)
The direction and amplitude of saccadic eye movements are determined by the location of the center of gravity of burst activity over a neuronal population on the spatial map of the intermediate gray layer (SGI) of the superior colliculus (SC). GABAergic interneurons might play critical roles in shaping the activation field on the topographical map but, to(More)
Neurons in the intermediate gray layer (SGI) of mammalian superior colliculus (SC) receive cholinergic innervation from the brain stem parabrachial region, which seems to modulate the signal processing in the SC. To clarify its role particularly in orienting behaviors, we studied cholinergic effects on the major output neuron group of the SGI, crossed(More)
It is generally accepted that the direct connection from the motor cortex to spinal motor neurons is responsible for dexterous hand movements in primates. However, the role of the 'phylogenetically older' indirect pathways from the motor cortex to motor neurons, mediated by spinal interneurons, remains elusive. Here we used a novel double-infection(More)
As an experimental model to study the mechanism of large-scale network plasticity of the juvenile brain, functional compensation after neonatal brain damage was studied in rats that received unilateral decortication at postnatal day 5. These animals exhibited a marked ability in reaching and grasping movements in the contralesional side of the forelimb when(More)
The current dominant concept for the control of saccadic eye movements by the basal ganglia is that release from tonic GABAergic inhibition by the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) triggers burst firings of intermediate gray layer (SGI) neurons in the superior colliculus (SC) to allow saccade initiation. This hypothesis is based on the assumption that(More)
Recently, by using a combination of two viral vectors, we developed a technique for pathway-selective and reversible synaptic transmission blockade, and successfully induced a behavioral deficit of dexterous hand movements in macaque monkeys by affecting a population of spinal interneurons. To explore the capacity of this technique to work in other pathways(More)