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Orexin-A and -B are recently identified potent orexigenic peptides that are derived from the same precursor peptide and are highly specifically localized in neurons located in the lateral hypothalamic area, a region classically implicated in feeding behavior. We cloned the whole length of the human prepro-orexin gene and corresponding cDNA. The human(More)
The properties of Ca2+-activated K+ channels in mouse mammary epithelial cells in primary culture were studied by the patch-clamp technique. In cell-attached patches, spontaneous channel openings were sometimes observed; the slope conductance of the currents was about 12 pS at negative membrane potentials with a physiological solution (152 mM Na+, 5.4 mM(More)
The relaxation effects of forskolin and methylxanthines on noradrenaline (NA)-induced contractions were investigated by measuring isotonic contraction and intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in the epididymal side of guinea-pig vas deferens. NA (100 microM) and high K+ (55 mM) induced a biphasic contraction; fast, transient (phasic) and slow,(More)
Medial preoptic area (MPA), supraoptic nucleus (SON), magnocellular (MaPVN) and parvocellular (PaPVN) paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei, and mesencephalic lateral tegmentum (MLT) are involved in maternal behavior, parturition and lactation. This study investigated the FosB and Fos immunoreactivity in these regions of virgin, pregnant, parturient,(More)
Intravenous administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (0.9 mg/kg) has been shown to induce ischemic tolerance in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). TNF-alpha is believed to play a crucial role in preconditioning as its inhibition with TNF-alpha-binding protein abolished tolerance. Our recent studies (Liu et al., Am. J. Physiol. 278 C144, 2000) have(More)
The function of synapsin I is regulated by phosphorylation of the molecule at multiple sites; among them, the Ser(603) residue (site 3) is considered to be a pivotal site targeted by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII). Although phosphorylation of the Ser(603) residue responds to several kinds of stimuli, it is unlikely that many or all of the(More)
The adult rat neurohypophysis reveals drastic morphological plasticity of neuron-glial organization during chronic physiological stimulation. Pituicytes are modified astrocytes in the neurohypophysis, and shape conversion of them largely contributes to the morphological plasticity. The present study aimed to investigate the receptor-mediated mechanism for(More)
The contractile responses to various concentrations of noradrenaline (NA), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), acetylcholine (ACh) and excess external K+ in the epididymal, middle and prostatic portions of the guinea-pig vas deferens were investigated by measuring the isotonic contraction, and the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) using fura-2(More)
Non-gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated effects of benzodiazepines (BZs) have not been widely investigated. However, there is significant evidence in the literature to suggest that several experimental and clinical observations are inconsistent with the commonly accepted GABAergic mechanisms of action for these drugs. The purpose of the present study(More)
To define a gene expression mechanism, it is often advantageous to use a reporter gene and transgenic mouse. The lacZ reporter gene is particularly useful for studies of the cis-regulatory element for tissue-specific expression in transgenic mice because of the ease of the enzyme assay and visualization on sections. In this report, we describe our method(More)