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We show here that amyloid beta peptide1-42 (Abeta1-42) may play a key role in the pathogenesis of the cholinergic dysfunction seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD), in addition to its putative role in amyloid plaque formation. Abeta1-42 freshly solubilized in water (non-aged Abeta1-42), which was not neurotoxic without preaggregation, suppressed acetylcholine(More)
Hyperphosphorylated tau is the major component of paired helical filaments in neurofibrillary tangles found in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. Starvation of adult mice induces tau hyperphosphorylation at many paired helical filaments sites and with a similar regional selectivity as those in AD, suggesting that a common mechanism may be mobilized. Here we(More)
Families bearing mutations in the presenilin 1 (PS1) gene develop Alzheimer's disease. Previous studies have shown that the Alzheimer-associated mutations in PS1 increase production of amyloid beta protein (Abeta1-42). We now show that PS1 also regulates phosphorylation of the microtubule-associated protein tau. PS1 directly binds tau and a tau kinase,(More)
According to the amyloid hypothesis for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) directly affects neurons, leading to neurodegeneration and tau phosphorylation, followed by the production of paired helical filaments (PHF) in neurofibrillary tangles (NFT). To analyze the relationship between the phosphorylation sites of tau(More)
Tau protein kinase I(TPKI)/glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3beta is abundant in the developing rat brain. The highly phosphorylated juvenile form of tau is present during the same developmental period. To study the role of TPKI/ GSK-3beta in neuronal growth, we examined the effects of lithium, a direct inhibitor of TPKI/GSK-3beta, using primary cultures of(More)
P35 or its truncated fragment p25 is required for cyclin dependent kinase (Cdk)5 activation. It has been reported that p25 is accumulated in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and that p25/Cdk5 induces high phosphorylation of tau and apoptosis in cultured neurons (Nature 402 (1999) 615). Our investigation of AD brain did not show specific(More)
To clarify how Abeta deposits induce secondary tauopathy, the presence of phosphorylated tau, glycogen synthase kinase 3alpha (GSK3alpha), GSK3beta, cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and fyn were examined in the Tg2576 brain showing substantial brain Abeta amyloidosis and behavioral abnormalities. Phosphorylated tau(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease characterized by a selective loss of upper and lower motor neurons. Since oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the progression of motor neuron loss observed in ALS, anti-oxidative agents could be an important therapeutic means for the ALS treatment. We have previously(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset motor neuron degenerative disease. Given that oxidative stress and resulting chronic neuronal inflammation are thought to be central pathogenic, anti-oxidative agents and modulators of neuronal inflammation could be potential therapies for ALS. We report here that the novel small molecular compound,(More)
Presenilin 1 (PS1) has been identified as a causative gene for most early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease. Biochemical studies revealed that PS1 exists predominantly as two processed fragments in cells and brain tissues. We prepared stably transfected cells expressing the wild-type and familial Alzheimer's disease-associated mutants of PS1 and(More)