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Mitophagy, or mitochondria autophagy, plays a critical role in selective removal of damaged or unwanted mitochondria. Several protein receptors, including Atg32 in yeast, NIX/BNIP3L, BNIP3 and FUNDC1 in mammalian systems, directly act in mitophagy. Atg32 interacts with Atg8 and Atg11 on the surface of mitochondria, promoting core Atg protein assembly for(More)
We isolated protoplasts from male and female gametophytes of a strictly dioecious strain of the coenocytic marine green alga Bryopsis plumosa. The protoplasts successfully developed into macrothalli. These in turn produced swimming cells, which appeared similar to biflagellated gametes even when the mixed protoplasts were comprised of protoplasm from male(More)
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