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BACKGROUND It has recently been hypothesized that hyperglutamatergia in the brain is involved in the pathophysiology of autism. However, there is no conclusive evidence of the validity of this hypothesis. As peripheral glutamate/glutamine levels have been reported to be correlated with those of the central nervous system, the authors examined whether the(More)
CONTEXT A growing body of evidence suggests that aberrant immunologic systems underlie the pathophysiologic characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, to our knowledge, no information is available on the patterns of distribution of microglial activation in the brain in ASD. OBJECTIVES To identify brain regions associated with excessively(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies have reported the association between advanced paternal age at birth and the risk of autistic-spectrum disorder in offspring, including offspring with intellectual disability. AIMS To test whether an association between advanced paternal age at birth is found in offspring with high-functioning autistic-spectrum disorder (i.e.(More)
The aim of the present study was to investigate metabolite alterations in the hippocampal formation as they relate to aggression in high-functioning adults with autism. We measured concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline-containing compounds (Cho), and creatine plus phosphocreatine (Cr+PCr) in the hippocampal formation by proton magnetic(More)
Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder diagnosed in early childhood. Abnormalities of serotonergic neurotransmission have been reported in autism. Serotonin transporter (5-HTT), which modulates serotonin levels, is a major therapeutic target in autism. Therefore, factors that regulate 5-HTT expression might be implicated in autism. One candidate(More)
UNLABELLED BACKGROUND Mitochondrial dysfunction (MtD) has been observed in approximately five percent of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). MtD could impair highly energy-dependent processes such as neurodevelopment, thereby contributing to autism. Most of the previous studies of MtD in autism have been restricted to the biomarkers of energy(More)
BACKGROUND Accumulating evidence suggests that dysregulation of the immune system is involved in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aim of the study was to explore immunological markers in peripheral plasma samples from non-medicated subjects with high-functioning ASD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS A multiplex assay for cytokines(More)
To examine the inter-rater reliability of Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, Japanese Version (ADI-R-JV), the authors recruited 51 individuals aged 3-19 years, interviewed by two independent raters. Subsequently, to assess the discriminant and diagnostic validity of ADI-R-JV, the authors investigated 317 individuals aged 2-19 years, who were divided into(More)
BACKGROUND The neurobiological basis of autism remains poorly understood. The diagnosis of autism is based solely on behavioural characteristics because there are currently no reliable biological markers. To test whether the anterior pituitary hormones and cortisol could be useful as biological markers for autism, we assessed the basal serum levels of these(More)
BACKGROUND The neurobiological basis of autism remains poorly understood. To examine the role played by serum cytokines in brain development, we hypothesized that Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF) and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) may be associated with pathophysiology of autism. In this study, we screened serum levels of these growth(More)