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The presenilin (PS)/gamma-secretase complex, which contains not only PS but also Aph-1, PEN-2, and nicastrin, mediates proteolysis of the transmembrane domain of beta-amyloid protein precursor (betaAPP). Intramembrane proteolysis occurs at the interface between the membrane and cytosol (epsilon-site) and near the middle of the transmembrane domain(More)
Gene expression can be regulated not only by transcription and post-transcriptional modifications, but also by splicing regulation. Recent genome-wide analyses have indicated that up to 70% of human genes may have alternatively spliced forms, suggesting that splicing regulation affects a wide range of gene expression. Tumor tissues show significantly(More)
Surrogate markers for the Alzheimer disease (AD)-associated 42-amino acid form of amyloid-beta (Abeta42) have been sought because they may aid in the diagnosis of AD and for clarification of disease pathogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contains three APLP1-derived Abeta-like peptides (APL1beta) that are generated by beta-(More)
BACKGROUND Multiple protein kinases have been shown to be involved in the apoptotic neuronal loss of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although some studies support the role of protein kinase C (PKC) in amyloid precursor protein processing as well as in tau phosphorylation, a direct role for PKC in apoptotic neuronal death remains to be clarified. In the present(More)
Intramembrane proteolysis by presenilin-dependent gamma-secretase produces the Notch intracellular cytoplasmic domain (NCID) and Alzheimer disease-associated amyloid-beta. Here, we show that upon Notch signaling the intracellular domain of Notch-1 is cleaved into two distinct types of NICD species due to diversity in the site of S3 cleavage. Consistent with(More)
Deciphering the mechanism by which the relative Aβ42(43) to total Aβ ratio is regulated is central to understanding Alzheimer disease (AD) etiology; however, the mechanisms underlying changes in the Aβ42(43) ratio caused by familial mutations and γ-secretase modulators (GSMs) are unclear. Here, we show in vitro and in living cells that presenilin(More)
To cope with an aging society, development of disease-modifying drugs for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is essential. Currently, only symptomatic treatments that suppress clinical manifestations are available. Amyloid-β<sub>42</sub> (Aβ<sub>42</sub>) is an AD-related pathogenic molecule that triggers development of AD pathology; thus, decreasing Aβ<sub>42</sub>(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Following extracellular shedding, transmembrane domains (TMs) of beta-amyloid precursor protein (betaAPP) and Notch-1 undergo proteolysis by presenilin (PS)/gamma-secretase at least at two sites, near the middle of the TM (gamma-/S4 cleavage) and at the interface between cytosol and the TM (epsilon-/S3 cleavage), releasing Alzheimer disease(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ). The genes that govern this process, however, have remained elusive. To this end, we combined distinct mouse strains with transcriptomics to directly identify disease-relevant genes. We show that AD model mice (APP-Tg) with DBA/2 genetic backgrounds have significantly lower(More)
It is thought that free oligosaccharides in the cytosol are an outcome of quality control of glycoproteins by endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD). Although considerable amounts of free oligosaccharides accumulate in the cytosol, where they presumably have some function, detailed analyses of their structures have not yet been carried out. We(More)