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Lysine63-linked ubiquitin (K63-Ub) chains represent a particular ubiquitin topology that mediates proteasome-independent signaling events. The deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) BRCC36 segregates into distinct nuclear and cytoplasmic complexes that are specific for K63-Ub hydrolysis. RAP80 targets the five-member nuclear BRCC36 complex to K63-Ub chains at DNA(More)
Type 1 interferons (IFN) protect the host against viruses by engaging a cognate receptor (consisting of IFNAR1/IFNAR2 chains) and inducing downstream signaling and gene expression. However, inflammatory stimuli can trigger IFNAR1 ubiquitination and downregulation thereby attenuating IFN effects in vitro. The significance of this paradoxical regulation is(More)
Expression of type I interferons (IFNs) can be induced by DNA-damaging agents, but the mechanisms and significance of this regulation are not completely understood. We found that the transcription factor IRF3, activated in an ATM-IKKα/β-dependent manner, stimulates cell-autonomous IFN-β expression in response to double-stranded DNA breaks. Cells and tissues(More)
The great preclinical promise of the pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) inhibitors in neurodegenerative disorders and cancers is marred by pancreatic injury and diabetic syndrome observed in PERK knockout mice and humans lacking PERK function and suffering from Wolcott-Rallison syndrome. PERK mediates many of the unfolded protein response(More)
Wnt pathway-driven proliferation and renewal of the intestinal epithelium must be tightly controlled to prevent development of cancer and barrier dysfunction. Although type I interferons (IFN) produced in the gut under the influence of microbiota are known for their antiproliferative effects, the role of these cytokines in regulating intestinal epithelial(More)
Purpose: Antiproliferative, antiviral, and immunomodulatory activities of endogenous type I IFNs (IFN1) prompt the design of recombinant IFN1 for therapeutic purposes. However, most of the designed IFNs exhibited suboptimal therapeutic efficacies against solid tumors. Here, we report evaluation of the in vitro and in vivo antitumorigenic activities of a(More)
Refractoriness of solid tumors, including colorectal cancers (CRCs), to immunotherapies is attributed to the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment that protects malignant cells from cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). We found that downregulation of the type I interferon receptor chain IFNAR1 occurs in human CRC and mouse models of CRC. Downregulation of(More)
Phototherapy with UV light is a standard treatment for psoriasis, yet the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects are not well understood. Studies in human and mouse keratinocytes and in the skin tissues from human patients and mice showed that UV treatment triggers ubiquitination and downregulation of the type I IFN receptor chain IFNAR1, leading to(More)
Oncogene activation induces DNA damage responses and cell senescence. We report a key role of type I interferons (IFNs) in oncogene-induced senescence. IFN signaling-deficient melanocytes expressing activated Braf do not exhibit senescence and develop aggressive melanomas. Restoration of IFN signaling in IFN-deficient melanoma cells induces senescence and(More)
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