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Two types of spawning experiments were carried out using a small or a large tank in order to determine the reason for the low fertilization rate in artificially reared red spotted grouper. The mean fertilization rate in the large tank (45%) was significantly higher than the one in the small tank (22%). The fertilization rates were high when a pair spawned(More)
Annual variations of freezing heights are derived using two sources of data over tropical and subtropical regions. The variations show latitude dependence and are compared with the standard distribution used for rain scatter interference prediction procedure. Interference calculations performed using the new set of distributions show some differences at(More)
  • K Okamoto
  • 1980
A method for measuring the thickness of a very thin oxide layer by secondary electron emission is described. The secondary electron signals are measured for an oxide-covered silicon surface and a reference surface by using the line mode of scanning electron microscope. Then, their ratio correlates well with the thickness of oxide layer, and it is(More)
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