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Neuroinflammation occurs as a result of microglial activation in response to invading micro-organisms or other inflammatory stimuli within the central nervous system. According to our earlier findings, Krüppel-like factor 4 (Klf4), a zinc finger transcription factor, is involved in microglial activation and subsequent release of proinflammatory cytokines,(More)
BACKGROUND Japanese Encephalitis virus (JEV) is a common cause of acute and epidemic viral encephalitis. JEV infection is associated with microglial activation resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including Interleukin-1 β (IL-1β) and Interleukin-18 (IL-18). The Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) and the underlying mechanism by which(More)
BACKGROUND Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) induces neuroinflammation with typical features of viral encephalitis, including inflammatory cell infiltration, activation of microglia, and neuronal degeneration. The detrimental effects of inflammation on neurogenesis have been reported in various models of acute and chronic inflammation. We investigated(More)
Microglia are the resident macrophages of the CNS, which secrete several pro- and anti-inflammatory cyto-chemokines including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), in response to pathogenic stimuli. Once secreted, IL-1β binds to IL-1 receptor present on microglia and initiates the production of inflammatory cytokines in microglia. However, the detailed information(More)
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the causative agent of Japanese encephalitis which is more prevalent in South and Southeast Asia. JEV is a neurotropic virus which infiltrates into the brain through vascular endothelial cells. JEV infects neurons and microglial cells which causes neuronal damage and inflammation. However, JEV also evades the cellular(More)
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is caused by a neurotropic flavivirus that causes CNS damage that leads to death in acute cases or permanent neuropsychiatric sequel in survivors. The course of infection of this virus is not well defined though it is clear that it evades the host's innate immune response in the periphery. The current study was designed to(More)
Lead is one of the major pollutants of environment and is highly toxic to the functioning of central nervous system (CNS). The chronic exposure of this heavy metal is debilitating to the functional behavior of an organism. Studies have shown that acute exposure to Pb can lead to glial activation and secretion of cyto-chemokines in both in vitro and in vivo(More)
BACKGROUND Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) belongs to a class of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that serve as micropollutants in the environment. B[a]P has been reported as a probable carcinogen in humans. Exposure to B[a]P can take place by ingestion of contaminated (especially grilled, roasted or smoked) food or water, or inhalation of polluted air. There are(More)
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection leads to Japanese encephalitis (JE) in humans. JEV is transmitted through mosquitoes and maintained in a zoonotic cycle. This cycle involves pigs as the major reservoir, water birds as carriers and mosquitoes as vectors. JEV invasion into the central nervous system (CNS) may occur via antipodal transport of(More)
BACKGROUND Japanese encephalitis (JE), the most common form of viral encephalitis occurs periodically in endemic areas leading to high mortality and neurological deficits in survivors. It is caused by a flavivirus, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), which is transmitted to humans through mosquitoes. No effective cure exists for reducing mortality and(More)