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BACKGROUND Japanese Encephalitis virus (JEV) is a common cause of acute and epidemic viral encephalitis. JEV infection is associated with microglial activation resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including Interleukin-1 β (IL-1β) and Interleukin-18 (IL-18). The Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) and the underlying mechanism by which(More)
Neuroinflammation occurs as a result of microglial activation in response to invading micro-organisms or other inflammatory stimuli within the central nervous system. According to our earlier findings, Krüppel-like factor 4 (Klf4), a zinc finger transcription factor, is involved in microglial activation and subsequent release of proinflammatory cytokines,(More)
Lead is one of the major pollutants of environment and is highly toxic to the functioning of central nervous system (CNS). The chronic exposure of this heavy metal is debilitating to the functional behavior of an organism. Studies have shown that acute exposure to Pb can lead to glial activation and secretion of cyto-chemokines in both in vitro and in vivo(More)
Astrocytes become activated in response to many CNS pathologies. The process of astrocyte activation remains rather enigmatic and results in so-called reactive gliosis, a reaction with specific structural and functional characteristics. Astrocytes play a vital role in regulating aspects of inflammation and in the homeostatic maintenance of the CNS. However,(More)
BACKGROUND Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) induces neuroinflammation with typical features of viral encephalitis, including inflammatory cell infiltration, activation of microglia, and neuronal degeneration. The detrimental effects of inflammation on neurogenesis have been reported in various models of acute and chronic inflammation. We investigated(More)
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a neurotropic flavivirus that is the causative agent of a major mosquito-borne encephalitis in the world. Evasion of peripheral immune system facilitates the entry of the virus into the central nervous system (CNS) where it causes extensive neuronal inflammatory damage that leads to death or severe neuropschychiatric(More)
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is caused by a neurotropic flavivirus that causes CNS damage that leads to death in acute cases or permanent neuropsychiatric sequel in survivors. The course of infection of this virus is not well defined though it is clear that it evades the host's innate immune response in the periphery. The current study was designed to(More)
Microglia are the resident macrophages of the CNS, which secrete several pro- and anti-inflammatory cyto-chemokines including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), in response to pathogenic stimuli. Once secreted, IL-1β binds to IL-1 receptor present on microglia and initiates the production of inflammatory cytokines in microglia. However, the detailed information(More)
BACKGROUND Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) belongs to a class of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that serve as micropollutants in the environment. B[a]P has been reported as a probable carcinogen in humans. Exposure to B[a]P can take place by ingestion of contaminated (especially grilled, roasted or smoked) food or water, or inhalation of polluted air. There are(More)
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the causative agent of Japanese encephalitis which is more prevalent in South and Southeast Asia. JEV is a neurotropic virus which infiltrates into the brain through vascular endothelial cells. JEV infects neurons and microglial cells which causes neuronal damage and inflammation. However, JEV also evades the cellular(More)