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H9N2 viruses have circulated in domestic poultry in Mainland China since 1994, and an inactivated vaccine has been used in chickens to control the disease since 1998. The present study analyzed 27 H9N2 avian influenza viruses that were isolated from chickens and ducks from 1996 to 2002. Infection studies indicated that most of the viruses replicate(More)
We recently analyzed a series of H5N1 viruses isolated from healthy ducks in southern China since 1999 and found that these viruses had progressively acquired the ability to replicate and cause disease in mice. In the present study, we explored the genetic basis of this change in host range by comparing two of the viruses that are genetically similar but(More)
In the present study, we explored the genetic basis underlying the virulence and host range of two H5N1 influenza viruses in chickens. A/goose/Guangdong/1/96 (GS/GD/1/96) is a highly pathogenic virus for chickens, whereas A/goose/Guangdong/2/96 (GS/GD/2/96) is unable to replicate in chickens. These two H5N1 viruses differ in sequence by only five amino(More)
We generated a high-growth H5N1/PR8 virus by plasmid-based reverse genetics. The virulence associated multiple basic amino acids of the HA gene were removed, and the resulting virus is attenuated for chickens and chicken eggs. A formalin-inactivated oil-emulsion vaccine was prepared from this virus. When SPF chickens were inoculated with 0.3 ml of the(More)
H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) has continued to spread and poses a significant threat to both animal and human health. Current influenza vaccine strategies have limitations that prevent their effective use for widespread inoculation of animals in the field. Vaccine strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), however, have been used(More)
In 2001 and 2003, we isolated two H5N1 viruses, A/swine/Fujian/1/01 (SW/FJ/01) and A/swine/Fujian/1/03 (SW/FJ/03), from pigs in Fujian Province, southern China. Genetically, these two viruses are similar, although the NS gene of the SW/FJ/03 virus has a 15-nucleotide deletion at coding positions 612 to 626. The SW/FJ/01 virus is highly lethal for chickens,(More)
H5N1 influenza viruses have caused significant disease and deaths in various parts of the world in several species, including humans. Vaccination combined with culling can provide an attractive method for outbreak containment. Using synthesized oligos and overlapping extension PCR techniques, we constructed an H5 HA gene, optiHA, containing chicken biased(More)
Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J), first isolated in 1989, predominantly causes myeloid leukosis (ML) in meat-type or egg-type chicken. Since 2006, the clinical cases of hemangioma rather than ML in commercial layer flocks associated with ALV-J have been reported, but it was still not clear whether the novel oncogenic ALV-J had emerged. We(More)
An H7N2 avian influenza virus was isolated from chickens during routine surveillance in northern China in 2002. To understand the origin of this virus, we completely sequenced its genome. The PB1, PA, HA, and M genes of this virus were highly homologous with those of the wild bird virus A/Africa starling/Eng-Q/983/79 (H7N1). The NP and NS genes were closely(More)
Here, we present the complete genome sequence of an attenuated duck enteritis virus (DEV) obtained by serial chicken embryo passage. Compared with a virulent DEV, there is a serial deletion in unique long open reading frame 11 (LORF11) and unique long region 2 (UL2). This study will aid in further exploration of the molecular pathogenesis of DEV.