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alpha-Synuclein is a key protein in Parkinson's disease (PD) because it accumulates as fibrillar aggregates in pathologic hallmark features in affected brain regions, most notably in nigral dopaminergic neurons. Intraneuronal levels of this protein appear critical in mediating its toxicity, because multiplication of its gene locus leads to autosomal(More)
α-Synuclein (α-Syn) is a key protein that accumulates as hyperphosphorylated aggregates in pathologic hallmark features of Parkinson's disease (PD) and other neurodegenerative disorders. Phosphorylation of this protein at serine 129 is believed to promote its aggregation and neurotoxicity, suggesting that this post-translational modification could be a(More)
Opioid drugs produce their pharmacological effects by activating inhibitory guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein-linked mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors. One major effector for these receptors is adenylyl cyclase, which is inhibited upon receptor activation. However, little is known about which of the ten known forms of adenylyl cyclase are(More)
The transgenic mouse Tg2576 is widely used as a murine model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and exhibits plaque pathogenesis in the brain and progressive memory impairments. Here we report that Tg2576 mice also have severe spinal cord deficits. At 10 months of age, Tg2576 mice showed a severe defect in the hindlimb extension reflex test and abnormal body(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by genetic and non-genetic factors. Most AD cases may be triggered and promoted by non-genetic environmental factors. Clinical studies have reported that patients with AD show enhanced baseline levels of stress hormones in the blood, but their physiological significance with respect(More)
Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 family, is activated by oxidative stress. The death-signaling pathway mediated by ASK1 is inhibited by DJ-1, which is linked to recessively inherited Parkinson's disease (PD). Considering that DJ-1 deficiency exacerbates the toxicity of the mitochondrial complex(More)
The beta-secretase cleaved Abeta-bearing carboxy-terminal fragments (betaCTFs) of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in neural cells have been suggested to be cytotoxic. However, the functional significance of betaCTFs in vivo remains elusive. We created a transgenic mouse line Tg-betaCTF99/B6 expressing the human betaCTF99 in the brain of inbred C57BL/6(More)
SK-PC-B70M is an oleanolic-glycoside saponin-enriched fraction derived from the root of Pulsatilla koreana. Recently, it was reported that hederacolchiside-E is an active ingredient of SK-PC-B70M that confers a neuroprotective effect against the cytotoxicity induced by Abeta(1-42) in SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells. SK-PC-B70M improves scopolamine-induced(More)
The JNK interacting protein, JSAP1, has been identified as a scaffold protein for mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways and as a linker protein for the cargo transport along the axons. To investigate the physiological function of JSAP1 in vivo, we generated mice lacking JSAP1. The JSAP1 null mutation produced various developmental(More)
Numerous transgenic mouse models for Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been generated to recapitulate the histological pathogenesis and behavioral phenotypes of AD brain. However, none of the existing models exhibits the full spectrum of AD symptoms, nor have all of the traits mimicked by the developed animal models been successfully represented within a single(More)