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alpha-Synuclein is a key protein in Parkinson's disease (PD) because it accumulates as fibrillar aggregates in pathologic hallmark features in affected brain regions, most notably in nigral dopaminergic neurons. Intraneuronal levels of this protein appear critical in mediating its toxicity, because multiplication of its gene locus leads to autosomal(More)
populated wireless networks, NO-BEB tries to evenly distribute the random backoff delay by distinguishing the new range of backoff delays from the previous one according to data delivery failure counts. With this technique, nodes with different failure counts are more probable to pick up distinct backoff delays. For the performance measurement of NO-BEB(More)
α-Synuclein (α-Syn) is a key protein that accumulates as hyperphosphorylated aggregates in pathologic hallmark features of Parkinson's disease (PD) and other neurodegenerative disorders. Phosphorylation of this protein at serine 129 is believed to promote its aggregation and neurotoxicity, suggesting that this post-translational modification could be a(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by genetic and non-genetic factors. Most AD cases may be triggered and promoted by non-genetic environmental factors. Clinical studies have reported that patients with AD show enhanced baseline levels of stress hormones in the blood, but their physiological significance with respect(More)
Opioid drugs produce their pharmacological effects by activating inhibitory guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein-linked mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors. One major effector for these receptors is adenylyl cyclase, which is inhibited upon receptor activation. However, little is known about which of the ten known forms of adenylyl cyclase are(More)
The transgenic mouse Tg2576 is widely used as a murine model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and exhibits plaque pathogenesis in the brain and progressive memory impairments. Here we report that Tg2576 mice also have severe spinal cord deficits. At 10 months of age, Tg2576 mice showed a severe defect in the hindlimb extension reflex test and abnormal body(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Ethyl pyruvate (EP) is a pyruvate derivative that has been reported recently to prevent lethality in mice with established lethal sepsis and systemic inflammation. In this study, we examined the neuroprotective effect of EP in a rat cerebral ischemia model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). METHODS Male Sprague-Dawley rats(More)
Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 family, is activated by oxidative stress. The death-signaling pathway mediated by ASK1 is inhibited by DJ-1, which is linked to recessively inherited Parkinson's disease (PD). Considering that DJ-1 deficiency exacerbates the toxicity of the mitochondrial complex(More)
The beta-secretase cleaved Abeta-bearing carboxy-terminal fragments (betaCTFs) of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in neural cells have been suggested to be cytotoxic. However, the functional significance of betaCTFs in vivo remains elusive. We created a transgenic mouse line Tg-betaCTF99/B6 expressing the human betaCTF99 in the brain of inbred C57BL/6(More)