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Immunoglobulin D (IgD) is an enigmatic antibody isotype that mature B cells express together with IgM through alternative RNA splicing. Here we report active T cell-dependent and T cell-independent IgM-to-IgD class switching in B cells of the human upper respiratory mucosa. This process required activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and generated(More)
Contact-dependent communication between immune cells generates protection, but also facilitates viral spread. We found that macrophages formed long-range actin-propelled conduits in response to negative factor (Nef), a human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) protein with immunosuppressive functions. Conduits attenuated immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) and IgA(More)
Users may view, print, copy, download and text and data-mine the content in such documents, for the purposes of academic research, subject always to the full Conditions of use: provided blood and tissue samples and discussed data; and A. Cerutti designed research, discussed data and wrote the paper. Abstract Neutrophils utilize immunoglobulins (Igs) to(More)
A dense mucus layer in the large intestine prevents inflammation by shielding the underlying epithelium from luminal bacteria and food antigens. This mucus barrier is organized around the hyperglycosylated mucin MUC2. Here we show that the small intestine has a porous mucus layer, which permitted the uptake of MUC2 by antigen-sampling dendritic cells (DCs).(More)
Class switch DNA recombination (CSR) from IgM to IgG and IgA is crucial for antiviral immunity. Follicular B cells undergo CSR upon engagement of CD40 by CD40 ligand on CD4+ T cells. This T cell-dependent pathway requires 5-7 days, which is too much of a delay to block quickly replicating pathogens. To compensate for this limitation, extrafollicular B cells(More)
Wnt/β-catenin signal has been reported to exert cytoprotective effects in cellular models of several diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (PD). This study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of actived Wnt/β-catenin signal by Wnt3a on SH-SY5Y cells treated with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Wnt3a-conditioned medium (Wnt3a-CM) was used to(More)
Multidrug resistance protein 7 (MRP7, ABCC10) is a recently discovered member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family which are capable of conferring resistance to a variety of anticancer drugs, including taxanes and nucleoside analogs, in vivo. MRP7 is highly expressed in non-small cell lung cancer cells, and Mrp7-KO mice are highly sensitive to(More)
Paclitaxel exhibits clinical activity against a wide variety of solid tumors. However, resistance to paclitaxel significantly attenuates the response to chemotherapy. The ABC transporter subfamily C member 10 (ABCC10), also known as multi-drug resistance protein 7 (MRP7) efflux transporter, is a major mediator of paclitaxel resistance. Here, we determine(More)
Aberrant methylation of promoter CpG islands is a hallmark of human cancers and is an early event in carcinogenesis. We examined whether promoter hypermethylation contributes to the pathogenesis of benign breast lesions along a progression continuum to invasive breast cancer. The exploratory study cohort comprised 17 breast cancer patients with multiple(More)
PURPOSE To explore the role of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM-2) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) keratitis. METHODS BALB/c mice were routinely infected with PA and evaluated at various postinfection time points for corneal expression of TREM-2, by real-time PCR, Western blot, and flow cytometry. Next, BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were(More)