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SK2-containing channels are expressed in the postsynaptic density (PSD) of dendritic spines on mouse hippocampal area CA1 pyramidal neurons and influence synaptic responses, plasticity and learning. The Sk2 gene (also known as Kcnn2) encodes two isoforms that differ only in the length of their N-terminal domains. SK2-long (SK2-L) and SK2-short (SK2-S) are(More)
We demonstrate vertical graphene-base hot-electron transistors (GB-HETs) with a variety of structures and material parameters. Our GB-HETs exhibit a current saturation with a high current on-off ratio (>10(5)), which results from both the vertical transport of hot electrons across the ultrathin graphene base and the filtering of hot electrons through a(More)
Small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) channels and voltage-gated A-type Kv4 channels shape dendritic excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Synaptically evoked Ca(2+) influx through N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) activates spine SK channels, reducing EPSPs and the associated spine head Ca(2+)(More)
It is well recognized that novel computational models, devices and technologies are needed in order to sustain the remarkable advancement of CMOS-based VLSI circuits and systems. Regardless of the models, devices and technologies, any enhancement/replacement to CMOS must show significant gains in at least one of the key metrics (including speed, power and(More)
Graphene's single atomic layer of sp(2) carbon has recently garnered much attention for its potential use in electronic applications. Here, we report a memory application for graphene, which we call graphene flash memory (GFM). GFM has the potential to exceed the performance of current flash memory technology by utilizing the intrinsic properties of(More)
To better understand the molecular basis of plant responses to nitrate stress, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to identify the potential important or novel genes involved in the early stage of spinach responses to nitrate stress. Complementary DNAs (cDNAs) of 15 min, 1 h, 2 h, 6 h and 24 h of 160 mM nitrate stress treatment seedlings(More)
In pyramidal neurons such as hippocampal area CA1 and basolateral amygdala, a slow afterhyperpolarization (sAHP) follows a burst of action potentials, which is a powerful regulator of neuronal excitability. The sAHP amplitude increases with aging and may underlie age related memory decline. The sAHP is due to a Ca(2+)-dependent, voltage-independent K(+)(More)
—Atomistic quantum transport simulations of a large ensemble of devices are employed to investigate the impact of different sources of disorder on the transport properties of extremely scaled (length of 10 nm and width of 1–4 nm) graphene nanoribbons. We report the dependence of the transport gap, ON-and OFF-state conductances, and ON–OFF ratio on(More)
Graphene has attracted considerable interest as a potential new electronic material. With its high carrier mobility, graphene is of particular interest for ultrahigh-speed radio-frequency electronics. However, conventional device fabrication processes cannot readily be applied to produce high-speed graphene transistors because they often introduce(More)
We apply the full power of modern electronic band-structure engineering and epitaxial heterostructures to design a transistor that can sense and control a single-donor electron spin. Spin-resonance transistors may form the technological basis for quantum information processing. One-and two-qubit operations are performed by applying a gate bias. The bias(More)