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Reserpine is a well-known medicine for the treatment of hypertension and schizophrenia, but its administration can induce Parkinson's disease (PD)-like symptoms in humans and animals. Reserpine inhibits the vesicular transporter of monoamines and depletes the brain of monoamines such as dopamine. However, the cellular function of reserpine is not fully(More)
Conessine, a steroidal alkaloid isolated from Holarrhena floribunda, has anti-malarial activity and interacts with the histamine H3 receptor. However, the cellular effects of conessine are poorly understood. Accordingly, we evaluated the involvement of conessine in the regulation of autophagy. We searched natural compounds that modulate autophagy, and(More)
The PKA-CREB signaling pathway is involved in many cellular processes including autophagy. Recent studies demonstrated that PKA-CREB inhibits autophagy in yeast; however, the role of PKA-CREB signaling in mammalian cell autophagy has not been fully characterized. Here, we report that the integral membrane protein ITM2A expression is positively regulated by(More)
Speed of sound (SOS) was measured in 14 bovine femoral trabecular bone samples with and without the cortical endplates with various thicknesses of 1.00, 1.31, 1.47, 1.75, and 2.00 mm. The presence of the cortical endplates resulted in an increase in the mean SOS of 16 m/s (+0.9%) to 91 m/s (+5.3%). The mean SOS measured in the samples with and without the(More)
The present study aims to identify a new recipe for reusable tissue mimicking phantoms that allows the optical visualization of thermal lesions produced in various applications of therapeutic ultrasound where thermal mechanisms are important. The phantom was made of polyacrylamide hydrogel containing a nonionic surface-active agent (NiSAA) as a(More)
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