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Neutrophils use immunoglobulins to clear antigen, but their role in immunoglobulin production is unknown. Here we identified neutrophils around the marginal zone (MZ) of the spleen, a B cell area specialized in T cell-independent immunoglobulin responses to circulating antigen. Neutrophils colonized peri-MZ areas after postnatal mucosal colonization by(More)
Immunoglobulin D (IgD) is an enigmatic antibody isotype that mature B cells express together with IgM through alternative RNA splicing. Here we report active T cell-dependent and T cell-independent IgM-to-IgD class switching in B cells of the human upper respiratory mucosa. This process required activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and generated(More)
The histologic and clinical similarities between tuberculosis and sarcoidosis suggest a shared underlying pathophysiology. Human natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP1), which is closely related to the mouse gene, has been associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis in some human populations. Given the importance of the Nramp1 gene in(More)
A class of antimicrobial peptides involved in host defense consists of sequences rich in Arg and Trp-R and -W. Analysis of the pharmacophore in these peptides revealed that chains as short as trimers of sequences such as WRW and RWR have antimicrobial activity (M. B. Strom, B. E. Haug, M. L. Skar, W. Stensen, T. Stiberg, and J. S. Svendsen, J. Med. Chem.(More)
Febrile (fever-induced) seizures are the most common form of childhood seizures, affecting 3%-5% of infants and young children. Here we show that the activity-dependent, retrograde inhibition of GABA release by endogenous cannabinoids is persistently enhanced in the rat hippocampus following a single episode of experimental prolonged febrile seizures during(More)
A fundamental property of neuronal networks in Ammon's horn is that each area comprises a single glutamatergic cell population and various types of GABAergic neurons. Here we describe an exception to this rule, in the form of granule cells that reside within the CA3 area and function as glutamatergic nonprincipal cells with distinct properties. CA3 granule(More)
Budding of retroviruses requires the structural precursor polyprotein, Gag, to target the plasma membrane through its N-terminal matrix (MA) domain. For HIV-1, the interaction between membrane signaling molecule phosphatidylinositol 4,5-diphosphate (PIP2) and MA induces the exposure of myristate and promotes membrane binding. Here we studied oligomerization(More)
OBJECTIVES To better understand the effect of admixture on long range linkage disequilibrium (LD), we characterized extended LD in gene-rich regions of an African-American population. METHODS Approximately 290 cM of chromosomes 1, 3, 6, 11-17, 20 and 22 were scanned using 109 polymorphic microsatellite markers spaced an average of 3 cM apart.(More)
A dense mucus layer in the large intestine prevents inflammation by shielding the underlying epithelium from luminal bacteria and food antigens. This mucus barrier is organized around the hyperglycosylated mucin MUC2. Here we show that the small intestine has a porous mucus layer, which permitted the uptake of MUC2 by antigen-sampling dendritic cells (DCs).(More)
Mucosal surfaces are colonized by large communities of commensal bacteria and represent the primary site of entry for pathogenic agents. To prevent microbial intrusion, mucosal B cells release large amounts of immunoglobulin (Ig) molecules through multiple follicular and extrafollicular pathways. IgA is the most abundant antibody isotype in mucosal(More)