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BACKGROUND Severe outbreaks of enterovirus 71 (EV71) have been on the rise in the Western Pacific region, including in China since 2007. We describe features of pediatric patients admitted with severe disease EV71 to a tertiary care hospital during the 2010 ongoing outbreak in the Shanghai region. METHODS The Shanghai EV71 outbreak was studied(More)
The misfolded isoform of the prion protein (PrP(Sc)) possesses many unusual physiochemical properties. Previously, we and others reported on the differential partitioning of PrP(Sc) from plasma derived therapeutic proteins during their purification processes. To understand the driving force behind these partitioning differences, we investigated the effects(More)
Determining the risk of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) transmission by blood or plasma-derived products requires sensitive and specific assays for the detection of either infectivity or a reliable marker for infectivity. To this end, a Western blot assay that is both sensitive and reproducible for the detection of PrP(RES), a marker for TSE(More)
BACKGROUND Experimental evidence from rodent models indicates that blood can contain transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) infectivity, which suggests a potential risk for TSE transmission via proteins isolated from human plasma. Because methods that can reduce TSE infectivity typically are detrimental to protein function, infectivity must be(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIM Multidrug resistance (MDR) compromises the efficacy of chemotherapy. Many approaches have been used to reduce MDR; however, the results are poor. It has been reported that iron deprivation downregulates MDR genes. To investigate the relationship of iron with MDR and early growth response gene-1 (EGR1), we investigated the effect of iron(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal neurodegenerative diseases caused by aberrantly folded cellular proteins (PrP(Sc); prions) that are generally resistant to conventional pathogen-inactivation techniques. To ensure effective decontamination and inactivation of prions that could be present in source material,(More)
Specific detection of the pathogenic prion protein, PrP(Sc), is essential for determining the prion clearance capacity of purification processes for therapeutic proteins. Use of a previously described indirect (two-antibody) Western blot assay sometimes resulted in the appearance of non-specific protein bands that interfered with the detection of small(More)
Protein products isolated from human plasma are an important class of therapeutics that are used to treat patients afflicted with hereditary deficiencies, trauma, and severe infections. Because of the human origin of the starting material for the production of these biological products, there is a risk of transmitting infectious agents, including viruses(More)
BACKGROUND The variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease incidence peaked a decade ago and has since declined. Based on epidemiologic evidence, the causative agent, pathogenic prion, has not constituted a tangible contamination threat to large-scale manufacturing of human plasma-derived proteins. Nonetheless, manufacturers have studied the prion removal(More)
Thrombate III(®) is a highly purified antithrombin concentrate that has been used by clinicians worldwide for more than two decades for the treatment of hereditary antithrombin deficiency. The manufacturing process is based on heparin-affinity chromatography and pasteurization. To modernize the process and to further enhance the pathogen safety profile of(More)