Kane A M Cunningham

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Ultrasonic coded transmitters (UCTs) are high-frequency acoustic tags that are often used to conduct survivorship studies of vulnerable fish species. Recent observations of differential mortality in tag control studies suggest that fish instrumented with UCTs may be selectively targeted by marine mammal predators, thereby skewing valuable survivorship data.(More)
Standard audiometric data, such as audiograms and critical ratios, are often used to inform marine mammal noise-exposure criteria. However, these measurements are obtained using simple, artificial stimuli-i.e., pure tones and flat-spectrum noise-while natural sounds typically have more complex structure. In this study, detection thresholds for complex(More)
Existing evidence suggests that some pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) can detect underwater sound at frequencies well above the traditional high-frequency hearing limits for their species. This phenomenon, however, is not well studied: Sensitivity patterns at frequencies beyond traditional high-frequency limits are poorly resolved, and the nature(More)
Many species of large, mysticete whales are known to produce low-frequency communication sounds. These low-frequency sounds are susceptible to communication masking by shipping noise, which also tends to be low frequency in nature. The size of these species makes behavioral assessment of auditory capabilities in controlled, captive environments nearly(More)
To test how accurately baseline audiometric data predict detection of complex stimuli, absolute detection thresholds for frequency-modulated (FM), amplitude-modulated (AM), and harmonic stimuli were obtained for one Phoca vitulina (harbor seal) and one Zalophus californianus (California sea lion) at frequencies spanning the functional range of hearing.(More)
Underwater noise, whether of natural or anthropogenic origin, has the ability to interfere with the way in which marine mammals receive acoustic signals (i.e., for communication, social interaction, foraging, navigation, etc.). This phenomenon, termed auditory masking, has been well studied in humans and terrestrial vertebrates (in particular birds), but(More)
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