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Americans' perceptions of childhood disability have changed dramatically over the past century, as have their ideas about health and illness, medical developments, threats to children's health and development, and expectations for child functioning. Neal Halfon, Amy Houtrow, Kandyce Larson, and Paul Newacheck examine how these changes have influenced the(More)
This study sought to examine the shape and magnitude of family income gradients in US children's health, access to care, and use of services. We analyzed cross-sectional data from the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health, a telephone survey of 102,353 parents of children aged 0-17 years. Associations between family income [Below 100% Federal Poverty(More)
During the latter half of the twentieth century, an explosion of research elucidated a growing number of causes of disease and contributors to health. Biopsychosocial models that accounted for the wide range of factors influencing health began to replace outmoded and overly simplified biomedical models of disease causation. More recently, models of(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine how gradients in socioeconomic status (SES) impact US children's reading and math ability at kindergarten entry and determine the contributions of family background, health, home learning, parenting, and early education factors to those gradients. METHODS Analysis of 6600 children with cognitive assessments at kindergarten entry from(More)
The 1996 welfare reform legislation expanded the use of sanctions under the assumption that welfare recipients can comply with work requirements and that they can calculate the costs and benefits of compliance. This research tests the validity of these assumptions through a record-and survey-based study of California welfare recipients. The article(More)
Why Determinants Social abstract There is overwhelming evidence that social factors have profound influences on health. Children are particularly sensitive to social determinants, especially in the early years. life course models view health as a developmental process, the product of multiple gene and environment interactions. adverse early social exposures(More)
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