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Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by deficits in social and communication processes. Recent data suggest that altered functional connectivity (FC), i.e. synchronous brain activity, might contribute to these deficits. Of specific interest is the FC integrity of the default mode network (DMN), a network active during passive resting states(More)
BACKGROUND Schizophrenia is hypothesized to involve disordered connectivity between brain regions. Currently, there are no direct measures of brain connectivity; functional and structural connectivity used separately provide only limited insight. Simultaneous measure of anatomical and functional connectivity and its interactions allow for better(More)
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting state temporal correlations (RSTC) are two leading techniques for investigating the connectivity of the human brain. They have been widely used to investigate the strength of anatomical and functional connections between distant brain regions in healthy subjects, and in clinical populations. Though they are both(More)
BACKGROUND Schizophrenia is a complex genetic disorder, with multiple putative risk genes and many reports of reduced cortical gray matter. Identifying the genetic loci contributing to these structural alterations in schizophrenia (and likely also to normal structural gray matter patterns) could aid understanding of schizophrenia's pathophysiology. We used(More)
Previous studies have reported learning and navigation impairments in schizophrenia patients during virtual reality allocentric learning tasks. The neural bases of these deficits have not been explored using functional MRI despite well-explored anatomic characterization of these paradigms in non-human animals. Our objective was to characterize the(More)
BACKGROUND Many studies have employed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of MRI images as an automated method of investigating cortical gray matter differences in schizophrenia. However, results from these studies vary widely, likely due to different methodological or statistical approaches. OBJECTIVE To use VBM to investigate gray matter differences in(More)
Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies have interpreted longitudinal medication- or behaviorally induced changes observed on T1-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRIs) as changes in neuronal structure. Although neurogenesis or atrophy certainly occurs, the use of T1-weighted scans to identify change in brain structure in vivo in humans has vulnerability:(More)
Cigarette smoke contains nicotine and toxic chemicals and may cause significant neurochemical and anatomical brain changes. Voxel-based morphometry studies have examined the effects of smoking on the brain by comparing gray matter volume (GMV) in nicotine dependent individuals (NDs) to nonsmoking individuals with inconsistent results. Although sex(More)
BACKGROUND Resting-state functional connectivity is a noninvasive, neuroimaging method for assessing neural network function. Altered functional connectivity among regions of the default-mode network have been associated with both nicotine and cannabis use; however, less is known about co-occurring cannabis and tobacco use. METHODS We used posterior(More)
OBJECTIVE : Determining the brain substrates underlying the motivation to abuse addictive drugs is critical for understanding and treating addictive disorders. Laboratory neuroimaging studies have demonstrated differential activation of limbic and motivational circuitry (eg, amygdala, hippocampus, ventral striatum, insula, and orbitofrontal cortex)(More)