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The pharmacological effects of rivoglitazone, a novel thiazolidinedione-derivative peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma agonist, were characterized in vitro and in vivo. Rivoglitazone activated human PPARgamma more potently compared with rosiglitazone and pioglitazone and had little effect on PPARalpha and PPARdelta activity in luciferase(More)
AIMS In this study, we evaluated whether catechins could inhibit the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators induced by dental caries-related bacteria, Streptococci, or pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) stimulation in human dental pulp fibroblasts (HDPF). We further determined the mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory activity of catechins. (More)
IDO induction can deplete L-tryptophan in target cells, an effect partially responsible for the antimicrobial activities and antiallogeneic T cell responses of IFN-gamma in human macrophages, dendritic cells, and bone marrow cells. L-tryptophan depletion and NO production are both known to have an antimicrobial effect in macrophages, and the interaction of(More)
Severe pulpitis resulting from dental caries is characterized by marked inflammatory infiltrate such as lymphocytes. Little is known about the recruitment of these cells into the dental pulp lesions of carious teeth. Macrophage inflammatory protein-3alpha (MIP-3alpha), a CC chemokine attracts CC chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6)-expressing T cells. We examined(More)
Astaxanthin (Asx) would be expected to prevent ultraviolet (UV)-induced skin damage, as it is regarded as a potent antioxidative carotenoid in biological membranes. However, it is difficult to administer Asx topically to skin because of its poor water solubility. In this study, we attempted to solve this problem by preparing liposomes containing Asx(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies have focused on whether different hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes are associated with different profiles of pathogenicity, infectivity, and response to antiviral therapy. We needed to develop a convenient screening test for HCV genotypes 1 and 2. METHOD We tested 55 patients with known chronic HCV infection. Viral RNA was(More)
Murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (MAIDS) induced by LP-BM5 murine leukemia virus is used as a model of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related neurologic dysfunction. Mice infected with LP-BM5 have mnemonic abnormalities (i.e., spontaneous alternation behavior in the Y-maze and performance in the Morris water maze) and biochemical alternations(More)
Streptococcus intermedius is a commensal associated with serious, deep-seated purulent infections in major organs, such as the brain and liver. Histone-like DNA binding protein (HLP) is an accessory architectural protein in a variety of bacterial cellular processes. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of pro-inflammatory cytokine inductions in(More)
Postprandial hyperglycemia is one of the features of type 2 diabetes. Increased hepatic gluconeogenesis is a predominant cause of postprandial hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. In this study, we evaluated the effect of gluconeogenesis inhibition on postprandial hyperglycemia using CS-917, a novel inhibitor of fructose 1,6-bisphphosphatase (FBPase) which is(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Periodontitis with bone resorption is caused by inflammatory reactions to bacterial infection. We recently reported that electromagnetic wave irradiation (EMWI) has bactericidal effects. However, the effects of EMWI on periodontal tissues remain unclear. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of EMWI on osteoblasts. METHODS(More)