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Prenylation plays a major role in the diversification of aromatic natural products, such as phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, and coumarins. This biosynthetic reaction represents the crucial coupling process of the shikimate or polyketide pathway providing an aromatic moiety and the isoprenoid pathway derived from the mevalonate or methyl erythritol phosphate(More)
Prenylated flavonoids are natural compounds that often represent the active components in various medicinal plants and exhibit beneficial effects on human health. Prenylated flavonoids are hybrid products composed of a flavonoid core mainly attached to either 5-carbon (dimethylallyl) or 10-carbon (geranyl) prenyl groups derived from isoprenoid (terpenoid)(More)
Glyceollins are soybean (Glycine max) phytoalexins possessing pterocarpanoid skeletons with cyclic ether decoration originating from a C5 prenyl moiety. Enzymes involved in glyceollin biosynthesis have been thoroughly characterized during the early era of modern plant biochemistry, and many genes encoding enzymes of isoflavonoid biosynthesis have been(More)
Isoprene is a volatile compound emitted from leaves of many plant species in large quantities, which has an impact on atmospheric chemistry due to its massive global emission rate (5 x 10(14) carbon g year(-1)) and its high reactivity with the OH radical, resulting in an increase in the half-life of methane. Isoprene emission is strongly induced by the(More)
Female flowers of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) develop a large number of glandular trichomes called lupulin glands that contain a variety of prenylated compounds such as α- and β-acid (humulone and lupulone, respectively), as well as xanthohumol, a chalcone derivative. These prenylated compounds are biosynthesized by prenyltransferases catalyzing the transfer(More)
Long chain prenyl diphosphates are crucial biosynthetic precursors of ubiquinone (UQ) in many organisms, ranging from bacteria to humans, as well as precursors of plastoquinone in photosynthetic organisms. The cloning and characterization of two solanesyl diphosphate synthase genes, OsSPS1 and OsSPS2, in Oryza sativa is reported here. OsSPS1 was highly(More)
Prenylation of the aromatic intermediate p-hydroxybenzoate (PHB) is a critical step in ubiquinone (UQ) biosynthesis. The enzyme that catalyzes this prenylation reaction is p-hydroxybenzoate polyprenyltransferase (PPT), which substitutes an aromatic proton at the m-position of PHB with a prenyl chain provided by polyprenyl diphosphate synthase. The rice(More)
Isoprene synthase cDNA from Populus alba (PaIspS) was isolated by RT-PCR. This PaIspS mRNA, which was predominantly observed in the leaves, was strongly induced by heat stress and continuous light irradiation, and was substantially decreased in the dark, suggesting that isoprene emission was regulated at the transcriptional level. The subcellular(More)
Prenylated polyphenols are secondary metabolites beneficial for human health because of their various biological activities. Metabolic engineering was performed using Streptomyces and Sophora flavescens prenyltransferase genes to produce prenylated polyphenols in transgenic legume plants. Three Streptomyces genes, NphB, SCO7190, and NovQ, whose gene(More)
Metabolic engineering aimed at monoterpene production has become an intensive research topic in recent years, although most studies have been limited to herbal plants including model plants such as Arabidopsis. The genus Eucalyptus includes commercially important woody plants in terms of essential oil production and the pulp industry. This study attempted(More)