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Turtles are characterized by their possession of a shell with dorsal and ventral moieties: the carapace and the plastron, respectively. In this review, we try to provide answers to the question of the evolutionary origin of the carapace, by revising morphological, developmental, and paleontological comparative analyses. The turtle carapace is formed through(More)
We have studied a possibility to read small pits in electron beam (EB) resist layer using a near-field optical probe for ultrahigh density optical storage. For the reading, we used small near-field optical probe in prototype atomic force cantilevered SNOM, which has an ability to obtain both atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning near-field microscope(More)
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