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Beclin 1, a protein essential for autophagy, binds to hVps34/Class III phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and UVRAG. Here, we have identified two Beclin 1 associated proteins, Atg14L and Rubicon. Atg14L and UVRAG bind to Beclin 1 in a mutually exclusive manner, whereas Rubicon binds only to a subpopulation of UVRAG complexes; thus, three different Beclin 1… (More)
Autophagy is a bulk protein-degradation process that is regulated by many factors. In this study, we quantitatively assessed the contribution of each essential yeast gene to autophagy. Of the contributing factors that we identified, we focused on the TRAPPIII complex, which was recently shown to act as a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor for the Rab small… (More)
This chapter describes the different methods used for localization of proteins and organelles in Pichia pastoris. A series of plasmids and a modified immunofluorescence protocol for localization and co-localization of proteins and organelles are described. Also included are protocols for the labeling of different subcellular organelles with vital stains.
Autophagy is an intracellular degradation process that delivers cytosolic material to lysosomes and vacuoles. To investigate the mechanisms that regulate autophagy, we performed a genome-wide screen using a yeast deletion-mutant collection, and found that Npr2 and Npr3 mutants were defective in autophagy. Their mammalian homologs, NPRL2 and NPRL3, were also… (More)