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Interleukin (IL)-18 is an important regulator of innate and acquired immune responses. Here we show that both the IL-18 and IL-18 receptor (IL-18R), which are induced in spinal dorsal horn, are crucial for tactile allodynia after nerve injury. Nerve injury induced a striking increase in IL-18 and IL-18R expression in the dorsal horn, and IL-18 and IL-18R(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an essential role in innate immune responses and in the initiation of adaptive immune responses. Microglia, the resident innate immune cells in the CNS, express TLRs. In this study, we show that TLR3 is crucial for spinal cord glial activation and tactile allodynia after peripheral nerve injury. Intrathecal administration of(More)
It has been widely recognized that chronic pain could cause physiological changes at supraspinal levels. The delta-opioidergic system is involved in antinociception, emotionality, immune response and neuron-glia communication. In this study, we show that mice with chronic pain exhibit anxiety-like behavior and an increase of astrocytes in the cingulate(More)
Clinically, it has been reported that chronic pain induces depression, anxiety, and reduced quality of life. The endogenous opioid system has been implicated in nociception, anxiety, and stress. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether chronic pain could induce anxiogenic effects and changes in the opioidergic function in the amygdala in(More)
BACKGROUND It has been recently recognized that the descending serotonin (5-HT) system from the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) in the brainstem and the 5-HT3 receptor subtype in the spinal dorsal horn are involved in enhanced descending pain facilitation after tissue and nerve injury. However, the mechanisms underlying the activation of the 5-HT3(More)
The central mechanisms of neuropathic pain following chronic ethanol consumption are poorly understood. We previously reported that the levels of metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5) receptor and phosphorylated-protein kinase C (PKC) were significantly increased in the spinal cord following chronic ethanol consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate(More)
The L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) is a widely used animal neuropathic pain model. There are conflicting reports regarding the extent of injury to the L4 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in this model. If a significant number of these neurons were injured, the previously reported phenotypic and electrophysiological changes at this level are in need of(More)
When rat peritoneal mast cells were treated with the potent histamine releaser compound 48/80 in the presence of tetramethylrhodamine-labeled G-actin, the fluorescent G-actin particles were bound to the surface of extruded granules and to the cell surface. When rhodamine-phalloidin was incorporated into permeabilized rat mast cells in a Ca2+-free medium,(More)
Insomnia is a common problem for people with chronic pain. Cortical GABAergic neurons are part of the neurobiological substrate that underlies homeostatic sleep regulation. In the present study, we confirmed that sciatic nerve ligation caused thermal hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia in mice. In this experimental model for neuropathic pain, we found an(More)
The present study was undertaken to investigate pharmacological actions induced by morphine and oxycodone under a neuropathic pain-like state. In the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) binding study and G-protein activation, we confirmed that both morphine and oxycodone showed MOR agonistic activities. Mice with sciatic nerve ligation exhibited the marked neuropathic(More)