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Myoblast fusion into multinucleated myotubes is a crucial step in skeletal muscle development and regeneration. Here, we accumulated murine myoblasts at the ready-to-fuse stage by blocking formation of early fusion intermediates with lysophosphatidylcholine. Lifting the block allowed us to explore a largely synchronized fusion. We found that initial merger(More)
Many enveloped viruses invade cells via endocytosis and use different environmental factors as triggers for virus-endosome fusion that delivers viral genome into cytosol. Intriguingly, dengue virus (DEN), the most prevalent mosquito-borne virus that infects up to 100 million people each year, fuses only in late endosomes, while activation of DEN protein(More)
Redirecting the splicing machinery through the hybridization of high affinity, RNase H- incompetent oligonucleotide analogs such as phosphoramidate morpholino oligonucleotides (PMO) might lead to important clinical applications. Chemical conjugation of PMO to arginine-rich cell penetrating peptides (CPP) such as (R-Ahx-R)(4) (with Ahx standing for(More)
Egress of Plasmodium falciparum, from erythrocytes at the end of its asexual cycle and subsequent parasite invasion into new host cells, is responsible for parasite dissemination in the human body. The egress pathway is emerging as a coordinated multistep programme that extends in time for tens of minutes, ending with rapid parasite extrusion from(More)
Macrophage fusion that leads to osteoclast formation is one of the most important examples of cell-cell fusion in development, tissue homoeostasis and immune response. Protein machinery that fuses macrophages remains to be identified. In the present study, we explored the fusion stage of osteoclast formation for RAW macrophage-like murine cells and for(More)
Understanding the mechanism of entry of cationic peptides such as nona-arginine (R9) into cells remains an important challenge to their use as efficient drug-delivery vehicles. At nanomolar to low micromolar R9 concentrations and at physiological temperature, peptide entry involves endocytosis. In contrast, at a concentration ≥10 μM, R9 induces a very(More)
entry of cell-penetrating peptide nona-arginine into adherent cells involves a transient increase in intracellular calcium. Deep two-photon brain imaging with a red-shifted fluorometric Ca 2+ indicator. calcium elicits feedforward regulation of the Toll-like receptor-triggered innate immune response. entry of cell-penetrating peptide nona-arginine into(More)
Repair and regeneration of the injured skeletal myofiber involves fusion of intracellular vesicles with sarcolemma and fusion of the muscle progenitor cells respectively. In vitro experiments have identified involvement of Annexin A1 (Anx A1) in both these fusion processes. To determine if Anx A1 contributes to these processes during muscle repair in vivo,(More)
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