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Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a special type of treatment involving the use of a photo-sensitizer or a photosensitizing agent along with a special type of light, which, combined together, induces production of a form of oxygen that is used to kill surrounding cells in different areas of the human body. Specification of the head and neck region requires(More)
Clefts that occur in children are a special topic. Avoiding risk factors, and also an early diagnosis of cleft possibility can result in minimizing or avoiding them. If on the other hand when clefts occur they require a long-term, multistage specialized treatment. Etiology of clefts seems to be related to many factors. Factors such as genetic,(More)
Six cranial fontanelles are present in newborns along with cranial sutures. Cranial sutures are a synarthrosis type of joints that occur in the skull after closure of fontanelles. Because of ossification up to 24 months, all fontanelles should be closed. Normal frontal bone consists of only frontonasal, frontozygomatic, frontomaxillaris, frontolacrimalis,(More)
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