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Despite the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), neuronal cell death remains a problem that is frequently found in the brains of HIV-1-infected patients. HAART has successfully prevented many of the former end-stage complications of AIDS, however, with increased survival times, the prevalence of minor HIV-1 associated cognitive impairment(More)
Transcription of the human polyomavirus (JCV) genome is regulated by host cell proteins and the viral early protein, T antigen. A region called the lytic control element (LCE), located within the enhancer of JCV, is important for transcription of JCV early and late promoters. Earlier studies have led to the identification of two single-stranded DNA-binding(More)
Using genetic inactivation in the mouse, PURA, encoding Pur alpha, is demonstrated to be essential for developmentally-timed dendrite formation in the cerebellum and hippocampus. Comparison of RNA species bound by Pur alpha prompts the hypothesis that Pur alpha functions with non-coding RNA in transport of certain mRNA molecules to sites of translation in(More)
Increases in circulating CD14+/CD16+ monocytes have been associated with HIV dementia; trafficking of these cells into the CNS has been proposed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of HIV-induced neurological disorders. This model suggests that events outside the CNS leading to monocyte activation initiate the process leading to HIV dementia. To(More)
The cause, or causes, of the vast majority of Alzheimer's disease cases are unknown. A number of contributing factors have been postulated, including infection. It has long been known that the spirochete Treponema pallidum, which is the infective agent for syphilis, can in its late stages cause dementia, chronic inflammation, cortical atrophy and amyloid(More)
JC virus (JCV) is a neurotropic polyomavirus infecting greater than 70% of the human population worldwide during early childhood. Repli-cation of JCV in brains of individuals with impaired immune systems results in the fatal demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoen-cephalopathy (PML). Furthermore, JCV possesses an oncogenic potential and(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the presence of human polyomavirus JC virus genome and the expression of the viral oncoprotein T-antigen in neoplastic cells of a patient with MS and a glioblastoma multiforme. BACKGROUND The postmortem examination of an immunocompetent patient with a neurologic disorder revealed the concurrence of MS plaques in the white matter(More)
HIV-1 infection can lead to severe central nervous system (CNS) clinical syndromes in more than 50% of HIV-1 positive individuals. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is the frequent opportunistic infection of the CNS which is seen in as high as 5% of AIDS patients. Results from previous cell culture studies showed that the HIV-1 regulatory(More)
JCV causes the CNS demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). After primary infection, JCV persists in a latent state, where viral protein expression and replication are not detectable. NF-κB and C/EBPβ regulate the JCV promoter via a control element, κB, suggesting proinflammatory cytokines may reactivate JCV to cause PML,(More)
B lymphocytes are known as a potential site for latency and reactivation of the human neurotropic polyomavirus, JC virus (JCV). In light of recent studies on the oncogenicity of JCV and the transforming ability of the JCV early protein, T antigen, we investigated the association of JCV with B-cell lymphomas of the central nervous system. Examination of 27(More)