Learn More
OBJECTIVES The majority of HIV-1-infected individuals manifest a plethora of central nervous system (CNS) diseases unrelated to opportunistic infections, including AIDS dementia complex, encephalitis, and various other disorders of the CNS. The present study sought to evaluate the cellular reservoirs and expression patterns of HIV-1 in brain tissue to gain(More)
JC virus (JCV) is a neurotropic polyomavirus infecting greater than 70% of the human population worldwide during early childhood. Replication of JCV in brains of individuals with impaired immune systems results in the fatal demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Furthermore, JCV possesses an oncogenic potential and induces(More)
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a debilitating and frequently fatal central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disease caused by JC virus (JCV), for which there is currently no effective treatment. Lytic infection of oligodendrocytes in the brain leads to their eventual destruction and progressive demyelination, resulting in multiple(More)
The transcription control region of the archetype strain of the human polyomavirus JC virus (JCV(Cy)), unlike its neurotropic counterpart (JCV(Mad-1)), contains only one copy of the 98-bp enhancer/promoter repeat with the 23-bp and the 66-bp insertion blocks. Early studies by us and others have indicated that the structural organization of JCV(Mad-1) is(More)
Puralpha is a ubiquitous, sequence-specific DNA- and RNA-binding protein which is highly conserved in eukaryotic cells. Puralpha has been implicated in diverse cellular functions, including transcriptional activation and repression, translation and cell growth. Moreover, this protein has been shown to be involved in regulating several human viruses which(More)
Increases in circulating CD14+/CD16+ monocytes have been associated with HIV dementia; trafficking of these cells into the CNS has been proposed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of HIV-induced neurological disorders. This model suggests that events outside the CNS leading to monocyte activation initiate the process leading to HIV dementia. To(More)
Despite the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), neuronal cell death remains a problem that is frequently found in the brains of HIV-1-infected patients. HAART has successfully prevented many of the former end-stage complications of AIDS, however, with increased survival times, the prevalence of minor HIV-1 associated cognitive impairment(More)
This study was performed to quantitate and characterize the mononuclear phagocytes (MPs) in human immunodeficiency virus encephalopathy (HIVE) by immunohistochemistry in an effort to gain insights into potential mechanisms of central nervous system (CNS) accumulation. Single- and double-labeled studies using antibodies against CD14, CD16, CD68,(More)
HIV-1 infection can lead to severe central nervous system (CNS) clinical syndromes in more than 50% of HIV-1 positive individuals. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is the frequent opportunistic infection of the CNS which is seen in as high as 5% of AIDS patients. Results from previous cell culture studies showed that the HIV-1 regulatory(More)
HIV-1-infected opiate abusers often exhibit an accelerated form of HIV-1-associated dementia and enhanced neurological dysfunction. Productive HIV-1 infection of microglia and perivascular macrophages and the resultant secretion of neurotoxic molecules by these cells contribute to this phenomenon. In order to understand the role of morphine in this process,(More)