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Despite the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), neuronal cell death remains a problem that is frequently found in the brains of HIV-1-infected patients. HAART has successfully prevented many of the former end-stage complications of AIDS, however, with increased survival times, the prevalence of minor HIV-1 associated cognitive impairment(More)
JC virus (JCV) is a neurotropic polyomavirus infecting greater than 70% of the human population worldwide during early childhood. Replication of JCV in brains of individuals with impaired immune systems results in the fatal demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Furthermore, JCV possesses an oncogenic potential and induces(More)
The cause, or causes, of the vast majority of Alzheimer's disease cases are unknown. A number of contributing factors have been postulated, including infection. It has long been known that the spirochete Treponema pallidum, which is the infective agent for syphilis, can in its late stages cause dementia, chronic inflammation, cortical atrophy and amyloid(More)
The broad range of histological lesions associated with HIV-1 are somewhat subtle relative to the clinical manifestations that occur as a result of HIV infection. Although it is clear that HIV has a causative role in CNS disease, dementia appears to be a consequence of the infiltration of inflammatory cells and cytokine dysregulation rather than the amount(More)
Using genetic inactivation in the mouse, PURA, encoding Pur alpha, is demonstrated to be essential for developmentally-timed dendrite formation in the cerebellum and hippocampus. Comparison of RNA species bound by Pur alpha prompts the hypothesis that Pur alpha functions with non-coding RNA in transport of certain mRNA molecules to sites of translation in(More)
Increases in circulating CD14+/CD16+ monocytes have been associated with HIV dementia; trafficking of these cells into the CNS has been proposed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of HIV-induced neurological disorders. This model suggests that events outside the CNS leading to monocyte activation initiate the process leading to HIV dementia. To(More)
AIDS remains incurable due to the permanent integration of HIV-1 into the host genome, imparting risk of viral reactivation even after antiretroviral therapy. New strategies are needed to ablate the viral genome from latently infected cells, because current methods are too inefficient and prone to adverse off-target effects. To eliminate the integrated(More)
BACKGROUND The human neurotropic polyomavirus, JCV, contains an open reading frame within the late region of the viral genome that encodes a 71-amino-acid protein, agnoprotein. Because accumulating evidence supports an association between JCV infection and human brain tumors, including medulloblastomas, we assessed the presence of JCV Agno gene sequences(More)
HIV-1 infection can lead to severe central nervous system (CNS) clinical syndromes in more than 50% of HIV-1 positive individuals. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is the frequent opportunistic infection of the CNS which is seen in as high as 5% of AIDS patients. Results from previous cell culture studies showed that the HIV-1 regulatory(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the presence of human polyomavirus JC virus genome and the expression of the viral oncoprotein T-antigen in neoplastic cells of a patient with MS and a glioblastoma multiforme. BACKGROUND The postmortem examination of an immunocompetent patient with a neurologic disorder revealed the concurrence of MS plaques in the white matter(More)