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Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a debilitating and frequently fatal central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disease caused by JC virus (JCV), for which there is currently no effective treatment. Lytic infection of oligodendrocytes in the brain leads to their eventual destruction and progressive demyelination, resulting in multiple(More)
JC virus (JCV) is a neurotropic polyomavirus infecting greater than 70% of the human population worldwide during early childhood. Replication of JCV in brains of individuals with impaired immune systems results in the fatal demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Furthermore, JCV possesses an oncogenic potential and induces(More)
HIV-1-infected opiate abusers often exhibit an accelerated form of HIV-1-associated dementia and enhanced neurological dysfunction. Productive HIV-1 infection of microglia and perivascular macrophages and the resultant secretion of neurotoxic molecules by these cells contribute to this phenomenon. In order to understand the role of morphine in this process,(More)
This study was performed to quantitate and characterize the mononuclear phagocytes (MPs) in human immunodeficiency virus encephalopathy (HIVE) by immunohistochemistry in an effort to gain insights into potential mechanisms of central nervous system (CNS) accumulation. Single- and double-labeled studies using antibodies against CD14, CD16, CD68,(More)
Despite the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), neuronal cell death remains a problem that is frequently found in the brains of HIV-1-infected patients. HAART has successfully prevented many of the former end-stage complications of AIDS, however, with increased survival times, the prevalence of minor HIV-1 associated cognitive impairment(More)
Medulloblastoma represents greater than 25% of childhood intracranial neoplasms and is considered a highly malignant tumor. This tumor, which arises predominantly in the cerebellar vermis, preferentially affects children between the ages of 5 and 15. Although the etiology of medulloblastomas in humans remains unknown, results from several experiments have(More)
Using genetic inactivation in the mouse, PURA, encoding Pur alpha, is demonstrated to be essential for developmentally-timed dendrite formation in the cerebellum and hippocampus. Comparison of RNA species bound by Pur alpha prompts the hypothesis that Pur alpha functions with non-coding RNA in transport of certain mRNA molecules to sites of translation in(More)
Puralpha is a ubiquitous, sequence-specific DNA- and RNA-binding protein which is highly conserved in eukaryotic cells. Puralpha has been implicated in diverse cellular functions, including transcriptional activation and repression, translation and cell growth. Moreover, this protein has been shown to be involved in regulating several human viruses which(More)
The transcription control region of the archetype strain of the human polyomavirus JC virus (JCV(Cy)), unlike its neurotropic counterpart (JCV(Mad-1)), contains only one copy of the 98-bp enhancer/promoter repeat with the 23-bp and the 66-bp insertion blocks. Early studies by us and others have indicated that the structural organization of JCV(Mad-1) is(More)
JCV is a papovavirus which is widespread in the human population. The prototype Mad-1 variant of JCV induces a fatal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) called Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) in immunosuppressed individuals. The unique tropism of JCV (Mad-1) to the CNS is attributed to the tissue-specific regulation of(More)