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HIV-1 infection can lead to severe central nervous system (CNS) clinical syndromes in more than 50% of HIV-1 positive individuals. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is the frequent opportunistic infection of the CNS which is seen in as high as 5% of AIDS patients. Results from previous cell culture studies showed that the HIV-1 regulatory(More)
Many neurological diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) are underpinned by malfunctions of the immune system, including disorders involving opportunistic infections. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a lethal CNS demyelinating disease caused by the human neurotropic polyomavirus JC (JCV) and is found almost exclusively in(More)
Despite the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), neuronal cell death remains a problem that is frequently found in the brains of HIV-1-infected patients. HAART has successfully prevented many of the former end-stage complications of AIDS, however, with increased survival times, the prevalence of minor HIV-1 associated cognitive impairment(More)
Increases in circulating CD14+/CD16+ monocytes have been associated with HIV dementia; trafficking of these cells into the CNS has been proposed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of HIV-induced neurological disorders. This model suggests that events outside the CNS leading to monocyte activation initiate the process leading to HIV dementia. To(More)
BACKGROUND In Alzheimer's disease (AD) the olfactory system, including the olfactory bulb, a limbic paleocortex is severely damaged. The occurrence of early olfactory deficits and the presence of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in olfactory bulb were reported previously by a few authors. The goal of the present study was to analyze the occurrence(More)
The cause, or causes, of the vast majority of Alzheimer's disease cases are unknown. A number of contributing factors have been postulated, including infection. It has long been known that the spirochete Treponema pallidum, which is the infective agent for syphilis, can in its late stages cause dementia, chronic inflammation, cortical atrophy and amyloid(More)
JC virus (JCV) is a neurotropic polyomavirus infecting greater than 70% of the human population worldwide during early childhood. Repli-cation of JCV in brains of individuals with impaired immune systems results in the fatal demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoen-cephalopathy (PML). Furthermore, JCV possesses an oncogenic potential and(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the presence of human polyomavirus JC virus genome and the expression of the viral oncoprotein T-antigen in neoplastic cells of a patient with MS and a glioblastoma multiforme. BACKGROUND The postmortem examination of an immunocompetent patient with a neurologic disorder revealed the concurrence of MS plaques in the white matter(More)
JCV causes the CNS demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). After primary infection, JCV persists in a latent state, where viral protein expression and replication are not detectable. NF-κB and C/EBPβ regulate the JCV promoter via a control element, κB, suggesting proinflammatory cytokines may reactivate JCV to cause PML,(More)