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This paper presents a frame based audio watermarking scheme using spread spectrum technique in Discrete Wavelet Transformation (DWT) domain. Here some of the existing spread spectrum (SS) watermarking schemes are implemented and analyzed. A new technique is presented where embedding is performed using SS technique in DWT domain. A comparative study is(More)
Since the selection of the Rijndael cryptosystem as a new Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) in 2000, many hardware implementations of AES have been reported. Some of these implementations are optimized for speed, some for area, some for reconfigurability, and some for low-power applications. Again, reversible logic synthesis methodologies have drawn the(More)
The development of approaches for synthesis and optimization of reversible circuits received significant attention in the past. This is partly due to the increasing emphasis on low power design method-ologies, and partly motivated by recent works in quantum computation. While most of them relied on a gate library composed of multiple-control Toffoli (MCT)(More)
With the advancements in semiconductor technology, there has been an increased emphasis in low-power design techniques over the last few decades. Reversible computing has been proposed by several researchers as a possible alternative to address the energy dissipation problem. Several implementation alternatives for reversible logic circuits have also been(More)
—Synthesis of reversible circuits has attracted the attention of many researchers. In particular, approaches based on Decision Diagrams (DDs) have been shown beneficial since they enable the realization of corresponding circuits for large functions. However, all existing approaches rely on a gate library composed of positive control lines only. Recently, it(More)
A frame based audio watermarking scheme using Discrete Wavelet Transformation (DWT) is presented in this paper. The algorithm embeds the copyright information into the consecutive levels of approximate coefficients of the DWT transformed audio signal. To increase the robustness of the proposed scheme, the information bits are embedded multiple times at the(More)