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The insertion of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) into the plasma membrane is an important step in the synaptic delivery of AMPARs during the expression of synaptic plasticity. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating AMPAR insertion remain elusive. By directly visualizing individual insertion events of the AMPAR subunit GluR1 in rodents, we found that the(More)
The circuits that control movement are comprised of discrete subtypes of motor neurons. How motor neuron subclasses develop and extend axons to their correct targets is still poorly understood. We show that LIM homeodomain factors Lhx3 and Lhx4 are expressed transiently in motor neurons whose axons emerge ventrally from the neural tube (v-MN). Motor neurons(More)
Reorganization of molecular components represents a cellular mechanism for synaptic plasticity. Dendritic spines, major sites for glutamatergic synapses, compartmentalize dynamic changes in molecular composition. Here, we use fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) in cultured hippocampal neurons to show that spine proteins undergo continual(More)
The ventral spinal cord generates multiple inhibitory and excitatory interneuron subtypes from four cardinal progenitor domains (p0, p1, p2, p3). Here we show that cell-cell interactions mediated by the Notch receptor play a critical evolutionarily conserved role in the generation of excitatory v2aIN and inhibitory v2bIN interneurons. Lineage-tracing(More)
Sonic hedgehog (Shh) specifies the identity of both motor neurons (MNs) and interneurons with morphogen-like activity. Here, we present evidence that the homeodomain factor HB9 is critical for distinguishing MN and interneuron identity in the mouse. Presumptive MN progenitors and postmitotic MNs express HB9, whereas interneurons never express this factor.(More)
The initiation and coordination of activity in limb muscles are the main functions of neural circuits that control locomotion. Commissural neurons connect locomotor circuits on the two sides of the spinal cord, and represent the known neural substrate for left-right coordination. Here we demonstrate that a group of ipsilateral interneurons, V2a(More)
Many animals are capable of changing gait with speed of locomotion. The neural basis of gait control and its dependence on speed are not fully understood. Mice normally use a single "trotting" gait while running at all speeds, either over ground or on a treadmill. Transgenic mouse mutants in which the trotting is replaced by hopping also lack a(More)
The V2a class of Chx10-expressing interneurons has been implicated in frequency-dependent control of left-right phase during locomotion in the mouse. We have used the Chx10::CFP mouse line to further investigate the properties and locomotion-related activity of V2a interneurons in the isolated neonatal spinal cord. V2a interneurons can be divided into three(More)
Mutant superoxide dismutase type 1 (MTSOD1), the most common known cause of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS), is believed to cause FALS as a result of a toxicity of the protein. MTSOD1s with full dismutase enzymatic activity (e.g., G37R) and without any enzymatic activity (e.g., G85R) cause FALS, demonstrating that the ability of MTSOD1 to(More)
The ventral spinal cord consists of interneuron groups arising from distinct, genetically defined, progenitor domains along the dorsoventral axis. Many of these interneuron groups settle in the ventral spinal cord which, in mammals, contains the central pattern generator for locomotion. In order to better understand the locomotor networks, we have used(More)