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The circuits that control movement are comprised of discrete subtypes of motor neurons. How motor neuron subclasses develop and extend axons to their correct targets is still poorly understood. We show that LIM homeodomain factors Lhx3 and Lhx4 are expressed transiently in motor neurons whose axons emerge ventrally from the neural tube (v-MN). Motor neurons(More)
The ventral spinal cord generates multiple inhibitory and excitatory interneuron subtypes from four cardinal progenitor domains (p0, p1, p2, p3). Here we show that cell-cell interactions mediated by the Notch receptor play a critical evolutionarily conserved role in the generation of excitatory v2aIN and inhibitory v2bIN interneurons. Lineage-tracing(More)
The insertion of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) into the plasma membrane is an important step in the synaptic delivery of AMPARs during the expression of synaptic plasticity. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating AMPAR insertion remain elusive. By directly visualizing individual insertion events of the AMPAR subunit GluR1 in rodents, we found that the(More)
Many animals are capable of changing gait with speed of locomotion. The neural basis of gait control and its dependence on speed are not fully understood. Mice normally use a single "trotting" gait while running at all speeds, either over ground or on a treadmill. Transgenic mouse mutants in which the trotting is replaced by hopping also lack a(More)
Sonic hedgehog (Shh) specifies the identity of both motor neurons (MNs) and interneurons with morphogen-like activity. Here, we present evidence that the homeodomain factor HB9 is critical for distinguishing MN and interneuron identity in the mouse. Presumptive MN progenitors and postmitotic MNs express HB9, whereas interneurons never express this factor.(More)
The initiation and coordination of activity in limb muscles are the main functions of neural circuits that control locomotion. Commissural neurons connect locomotor circuits on the two sides of the spinal cord, and represent the known neural substrate for left-right coordination. Here we demonstrate that a group of ipsilateral interneurons, V2a(More)
The ventral spinal cord consists of interneuron groups arising from distinct, genetically defined, progenitor domains along the dorsoventral axis. Many of these interneuron groups settle in the ventral spinal cord which, in mammals, contains the central pattern generator for locomotion. In order to better understand the locomotor networks, we have used(More)
Reorganization of molecular components represents a cellular mechanism for synaptic plasticity. Dendritic spines, major sites for glutamatergic synapses, compartmentalize dynamic changes in molecular composition. Here, we use fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) in cultured hippocampal neurons to show that spine proteins undergo continual(More)
Effective transvascular delivery of nanoparticle-based chemotherapeutics across the blood-brain tumor barrier of malignant gliomas remains a challenge. This is due to our limited understanding of nanoparticle properties in relation to the physiologic size of pores within the blood-brain tumor barrier. Polyamidoamine dendrimers are particularly small(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the selective loss of motor neurons (MNs). Approximately 10% of ALS cases are familial (known as FALS), and approximately 20% of FALS cases are caused by mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase type 1 (SOD1). Mutant (MT) SOD1 induces FALS as a result of a toxicity that(More)