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BACKGROUND Vitamin D may modify risk for cardiometabolic outcomes (type 2 diabetes, hypertension, or cardiovascular disease). PURPOSE To examine the association between vitamin D status, including the effect of vitamin D supplementation, and cardiometabolic outcomes in generally healthy adults. DATA SOURCES English-language studies in MEDLINE (inception(More)
BACKGROUND Since the 1997 Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) values for vitamin D and calcium were established new data have become available on their relationship, both individually and combined, to a wide range of health outcomes. The Institute of Medicine/Food and Nutrition Board has constituted a DRI committee to undertake a review of the evidence and(More)
BACKGROUND Concerns have been raised about the concurrent temporal trend between simple sugar intakes, especially of fructose or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and rates of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the United States. OBJECTIVE We examined the effect of different amounts and forms of dietary fructose on the incidence or prevalence of(More)
UNLABELLED PET and PET/CT are widely used for surveillance of patients after cancer treatments. We conducted a systematic review to assess the diagnostic accuracy and clinical impact of PET and PET/CT used for surveillance in several cancers. METHODS We searched MEDLINE and Cochrane Library databases from 1996 to March 2012 for English-language studies of(More)
BACKGROUND Radiation therapy is one of many treatment options for patients with prostate cancer. PURPOSE To update findings on the clinical and biochemical outcomes of radiation therapies for localized prostate cancer. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE (2007 through March 2011) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2007 through March 2011). STUDY(More)
BACKGROUND Clinical guidelines recommend that adults with hypertension self-monitor their blood pressure (BP). PURPOSE To summarize evidence about the effectiveness of self-measured blood pressure (SMBP) monitoring in adults with hypertension. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE (inception to 8 February 2013) and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and(More)
BACKGROUND Obstructive sleep apnea is a relatively common disorder that can lead to lost productivity and cardiovascular disease. The form of positive airway treatment that should be offered is unclear. METHODS MEDLINE and the Cochrane Central Trials registry were searched for English language randomized controlled trials comparing auto-titrating positive(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES To identify and prioritize future research needs (FRN) topics for diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). METHODS Twenty-one panel members represented six stake-holder categories: patients and the public, providers; purchasers of health care, payers, policymakers, and principal investigators. Building on a recently(More)
ABSTRACT Background: Concerns have been raised about the concurrent temporal trend between simple sugar intakes, especially of fructose or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and rates of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the United States. Objective: We examined the effect of different amounts and forms of dietary fructose on the incidence or(More)
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