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In malaria-endemic countries, large proportions of infected individuals are asymptomatic, constituting a reservoir of parasites for infection of newly hatched mosquitoes. This study evaluated the impact of screening and treatment of asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium falciparum. Eighteen villages were randomized (1:1) to study arms and inhabitants(More)
Different tissues or body fluids in which human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can reside may contain viruses with distinct characteristics. Sixteen HIV-1-infected patients receiving zidovudine or didanosine were studied cross-sectionally and 1 patient who switched from zidovudine to didanosine was followed sequentially to determine if drug(More)
Infections caused by Gram-positive pathogens remain a major public health burden and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Increasing rates of infection with Gram-positive bacteria and the emergence of resistance to commonly used antibiotics have led to the need for novel antibiotics. Daptomycin, a cyclic lipopeptide with rapid bactericidal(More)
BACKGROUND Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) is currently the first choice for empiric therapy of acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) in women. In areas where resistance to TMP/SMX is known to be high, ciprofloxacin and other fluoroquinolones are recommended as first-line choices for the empiric therapy of UTI. OBJECTIVE This study(More)
BACKGROUND The Bolivian northern Altiplano is characterized by a high prevalence of Fasciola hepatica infection. In order to assess the feasibility, safety and efficacy of large-scale administration of triclabendazole as an appropriate public health measure to control morbidity associated with fascioliasis, a pilot intervention was implemented in 2008. (More)
BACKGROUND Orally administered antiviral therapy for genital herpes improves the time to lesion healing and resolves symptoms during an outbreak. Although traditional therapy for a recurrent episode for healthy adults has consisted of twice-daily dosing for 5 days, recent studies have indicated that shorter courses of antiviral therapy are effective. This(More)
BACKGROUND The brief period of viral replication in recurrent herpes labialis lesions suggests shorter therapeutic regimens are a logical episodic treatment strategy. OBJECTIVE We sought to assess the efficacy and safety of single-dose and single-day famciclovir treatments. METHODS In all, 701 randomly assigned patients self-initiated therapy with(More)
Despite the protection provided by several factors, including maternal antibodies, the burden of malaria in young infants may be higher than previously thought. Infants with congenital or neonatal malaria may have a different clinical presentation than older children, and diagnosis may be confused with other neonatal diseases due to an overlap of clinical(More)
BACKGROUND Recurrent genital herpes is a major problem for patients worldwide. Early episodic treatment with short-course therapy is effective, often stopping progression of outbreaks. This study is the first head-to-head comparison of single-day famciclovir (1000 mg administered twice daily) versus 3-day valacyclovir (500 mg administered twice daily) for(More)
Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are immune chromatographic tests targeting antigens of one or more Plasmodium species and offer the potential to extend accurate malaria diagnosis in endemic areas. In this study, the performance of Plasmodium falciparum- specific histidine-rich protein-2 (PfHRP-2) RDT in the detection of asymptomatic carriers from a(More)