Kamal Chaouachi

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Sir, All users of the fashionable hookah across the world, except in rare cases, do change the water of the pipe basin after each smoking session (or get it changed). This is a well-established fact, as the following note a physician in Nepal early wrote in the British Medical Journal shows: 'water is changed each time smoking is carried out' (Pande, 1962).(More)
Hookah (narghile, shisha, "water-pipe") smoking is now seen by public health officials as a global tobacco epidemic. Cigarette Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) is classically understood as a combination of Side-Stream Smoke (SSS) and Exhaled Main-Stream Smoke (EMSS), both diluted and aged. Some of the corresponding cigarette studies have served as the(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIM The World Health Organisation Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation (TobReg) has issued in 2005 an "Advisory Note" entitled: "Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking: Health Effects, Research Needs and Recommended Actions by Regulators". "Waterpipe" smoking is now considered a global public health threat and the corresponding artefact is actually(More)
BACKGROUND We have recently published some work on CEA levels in hookah (also called narghile, shisha elsewhere) and cigarette smokers. Hookah smokers had higher levels of CEA than non-smokers although mean levels were low compared to cigarette smokers. However some of them were also users of other tobacco products (cigarettes, bidis, etc.). OBJECTIVES To(More)
Tobacco smoking is hazardous for health. However, not all forms of tobacco use entail the same risks and the latter should be studied and compared in a sound realistic way. Smoking machines for cigarettes (which are consumed in a few minutes) were early designed as a tool to evaluate the actual intake of toxic substances ('toxicants') by smokers. However,(More)
The alpha-radioactive polonium 210 (Po-210) is one of the most powerful carcinogenic agents of tobacco smoke and is responsible for the histotype shift of lung cancer from squamous cell type to adenocarcinoma. According to several studies, the principal source of Po-210 is the fertilizers used in tobacco plants, which are rich in polyphosphates containing(More)
Sir, Nasrollahzadeh et al (2008) report that the regular use of hookah in Iran 'may involve exposure to large amounts of tobacco combustion products' and that the intensity of hookah use (not duration, unlike nass) was associated with ESCC (oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma) risk. Certainly one feature of hookah use in countries, such as Iran, India and(More)
BACKGROUND The traditional definition of an "epidemic" has been revisited by antismoking researchers. After 400 years, Doctors would have realized that one aspect of an ancient cultural daily practice of Asian and African societies was in fact a "global "epidemic"". This needed further investigation particularly if one keeps in his mind the health aspects(More)
Dear Editors, In their interesting report, Lim et al. state that shisha CO poisoning is rare in Singapore [1]. The situation is actually the same worldwide. In Saudi Arabia, only 1 shisha smoker out of 24 cases of CO-related intoxications of various origins could be identified [2]. A few years ago, two cases related to hookah lounges were reported in(More)