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Free fatty acids (FFAs) suppress appetite when injected into the hypothalamus. To examine whether lipoprotein lipase (LPL), a serine hydrolase that releases FFAs from circulating triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins, might contribute to FFA-mediated signaling in the brain, we created neuron-specific LPL-deficient mice. Homozygous mutant (NEXLPL-/-) mice were(More)
In obesity-related hypertension, activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been reported despite marked fluid volume expansion. Adipose tissue expresses components of the RAS and is markedly expanded in obesity. This study evaluated changes in components of the adipose and systemic RAS in diet-induced obese hypertensive rats. RAS was quantified(More)
Adipose tissue expresses components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE2), a new component of the RAS, catabolizes the vasoconstrictor peptide ANG II to form the vasodilator angiotensin 1-7 [ANG-(1-7)]. We examined whether adipocytes express ACE2 and its regulation by manipulation of the RAS and by high-fat (HF)(More)
Intracellular lipid accumulation in the heart is associated with cardiomyopathy, yet the precise role of triglyceride (TG) remains unclear. With exercise, wild type hearts develop physiologic hypertrophy. This was associated with greater TG stores and a marked induction of the TG-synthesizing enzyme diacylglycerol (DAG) acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1). Transgenic(More)
Alcohol, a major cause of human cardiomyopathy, decreases cardiac contractility in both animals and man. However, key features of alcohol-related human heart disease are not consistently reproduced in animal models. Accordingly, we studied cardiac histology, contractile function, cardiomyocyte long chain fatty acid (LCFA) uptake, and gene expression in male(More)
Adipose fat storage is thought to require uptake of circulating triglyceride (TG)-derived fatty acids via lipoprotein lipase (LpL). To determine how LpL affects the biology of adipose tissue, we created adipose-specific LpL knock-out (ATLO) mice, and we compared them with whole body LpL knock-out mice rescued with muscle LpL expression (MCK/L0) and wild(More)
Normal hearts have increased contractility in response to catecholamines. Because several lipids activate PKCs, we hypothesized that excess cellular lipids would inhibit cardiomyocyte responsiveness to adrenergic stimuli. Cardiomyocytes treated with saturated free fatty acids, ceramide, and diacylglycerol had reduced cellular cAMP response to isoproterenol.(More)
The role of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) and de novo ceramide biosynthesis in cardiac ceramide and sphingomyelin metabolism is unclear. To determine whether the de novo synthetic pathways, rather than ceramide uptake from circulating lipoproteins, is important for heart ceramide levels, we created cardiomyocyte-specific deficiency of Sptlc2, a subunit(More)
Angiotensin II (AngII) facilitates sympathetic neurotransmission by regulating norepinephrine (NE) synthesis, release and uptake. These effects of AngII contribute to cardiovascular control. Previous studies in our laboratory demonstrated that chronic AngII infusion decreased body weight of rats. We hypothesized that AngII facilitates sympathetic(More)
Adipocytes secrete a variety of factors, including angiotensinogen, the only known precursor to Angiotensin II (AngII). Recent studies suggest that adipocyte-derived angiotensinogen can contribute to circulating angiotensinogen concentrations and modulate blood pressure; however, an autocrine role for adipocyte-derived angiotensinogen and/or AngII has not(More)