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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is a safe and effective endourologic procedure which is less morbid than open surgery. However, pain around a nephrostomy tube requires good(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIM Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is a common for managing renal calculi. Pain in the initial post operatie period is relieved by infiltration of local anaesthetic around the(More)
The initial interaction between bacteria and the renal pelvic epithelium may determine whether intrarenal infection occurs. A model of retrograde pyelonephritis was employed to study these events by(More)