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Kala-azar in India is becoming increasingly difficult to treat, which may be due to the presence of species other than Leishmania donovani; Leishmania tropica was reported to cause the same clinical syndrome in the area. Over the past 3 years, we have collected samples from 241 patients with visceral leishmaniasis from across the region. Of the 189 isolates(More)
Stored sera from 429 Indian subjects were assayed to extend the analysis of the accuracy of immunochromatographic strip-test detection of anti-K39 antibody in the non-invasive diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). All 225 samples from patients with proven Leishmania infection tested positive [estimated sensitivity = 100%; 95% confidence interval(More)
Reports at the Sir Sunder Lal Hospital, Banaras Hindu University, of a large number of kala-azar cases from one particular village in Varanasi district, Uttar Pradesh, led us to carry out an epidemiological study of the situation using standard techniques. The overall prevalence and case fatality of the disease were 12.9% and 10.5%, respectively. A history(More)
Human natural killer (NK) cells and monocytes treated in vitro concomitantly with cisplatin and rIFN-gamma enhanced lysis of K562 cells. Lysis was dependent upon the duration of treatment. Cisplatin and rIFN-gamma treated monocytes were equally cytotoxic to NK sensitive (K562) and NK resistant (Daudi & Raji) cell lines whereas NK cells were not rendered(More)
It is believed that the enhanced capability of activated macrophages to resist infection is related to the remarkable increase in the production of oxygen metabolites in response to phagocytosis. Both the production of H2O2 and the oxidation of NAD(P)H are directly dependent upon NAD(P)H-oxidase. It has been established that the respiratory burst is due to(More)
The recombinant product (rK39) of the 39-amino-acid repeats encoded by a kinesin-like protein-encoding gene of Leishmania chagasi was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for diagnostic potential and the ability to predict the response to therapy in Indian kala-azar or visceral leishmaniasis (VL); we also compared its performance with that(More)
It is believed that the enhanced microbicidal and tumoricidal capability of activated macrophages is related to the remarkable increase in the production of oxygen metabolites. Both the production of H2O2 and the oxidation of NAD(P)H are directly dependent upon NAD(P)H-oxidase. It has been established that the respiratory burst is due to activation of(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate five kala-azar serological tests for field use. METHOD Serological survey in Pandit Ka Purva village in Varanasi district, India, using Sia water test, aldehyde test, direct agglutination test (DAT), micro-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and dot-ELISA. RESULTS The total population of the village was 518, 67 of whom showed(More)
The supernatants collected from cisplatin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), muramyl dipeptide (MDP) or recombinant interferon gamma (rIFN-gamma) treated non-adherent mononuclear cells (with NK cell activity) enhanced thymocyte proliferation by a submitogenic concentration of concanavalin A as compared to untreated nMNC. Supernatants collected from cisplatin or(More)
The potential for additive or synergistic augmentation of NK cell activity of nMNC with recombinant tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and cisplatin in different combinations was examined. Significant augmentation in NK activity of nMNC was observed when treated with cisplatin, rIFN-gamma, rIL-1 or(More)