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Neurobiologic, psychologic, and social factors interact jointly to create and perpetuate the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The fear conditioning paradigm in animal research helped researchers gather preclinical evidence for the possible contribution of several brain areas to PTSD symptoms. In the past 10 years, highly sophisticated(More)
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE To summarize the literature on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) and their co-morbidity, focusing on diagnosis, clinical symptoms and treatment issues relevant to the clinician. RESEARCH DESIGN Review of the literature. METHODS AND PROCEDURES Pubmed searches were performed using the terms(More)
The physiological consequences of acute and chronic stress on a range of organ systems have been well documented after the pioneering work of Hans Selye more than 70 years ago. More recently, an association between exposure to stressful life events and the development of later-life cognitive dysfunction has been proposed. Several plausible neurohormonal(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious health risk for older adults, and the consequences of TBI range from full recovery to death. For many who survive, there is a legacy of cognitive, physical, and emotional disability. Falls are the major cause of head injury in older adults. There are many risk factors including pre-existing brain disease, other(More)
Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoff's psychosis in alcoholics are thought to be due to thiamine deficiency. When the process goes untreated, patients may develop alcohol-induced persisting dementia. We review the literature on thermal dysregulation and the place of thiamine treatment in Wernicke's encephalopathy, Korsakoff's psychosis, and(More)
Chronic traumatic brain injury (CTBI) is associated with contact sports such as boxing. CTBI results from repetitive blows to the head rather than from a single impact. CTBI individuals present with motor symptoms (incoordination, spasticity, parkinsonism), cognitive impairment (executive dysfunction, memory deficits) and neuropsychiatric symptoms(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine how psychiatric comorbidities in migraineurs in the emergency department (ED) affect healthcare utilization and treatment tendencies. METHOD This is a cross-sectional analysis of 2872 patients who visited our ED over a 10-year period and were given a principal diagnosis of migraine. RESULTS Compared to migraineurs without a(More)
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by prions. Typically CJD presents with a triad of rapidly progressive dementia, abnormal movements (e.g., myoclonus) and electroencephalographic (EEG) changes. Recently, CJD has been subdivided into subtypes based on host genetic polymorphisms and the characteristics(More)