Kallirroi Georgila

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This paper describes and compares two methods for simulating user behaviour in spoken dialogue systems. User simulations are important for automatic dialogue strategy learning and the evaluation of competing strategies. Our methods are designed for use with “Information State Update” (ISU)-based dialogue systems. The first method is based on supervised(More)
We propose the “advanced” n-grams as a new technique for simulating user behaviour in spoken dialogue systems, and we compare it with two methods used in our prior work, i.e. linear feature combination and “normal” n-grams. All methods operate on the intention level and can incorporate speech recognition and understanding errors. In the linear feature(More)
The lack of suitable training and testing data is currently a major roadblock in applying machine-learning techniques to dialogue management. Stochastic modelling of real users has been suggested as a solution to this problem, but to date few of the proposed models have been quantitatively evaluated on real data. Indeed, there are no established criteria(More)
We propose a method for learning dialogue management policies from a fixed data set. The method addresses the challenges posed by Information State Update (ISU)-based dialogue systems, which represent the state of a dialogue as a large set of features, resulting in a very large state space and a huge policy space. To address the problem that any fixed data(More)
We demonstrate a multimodal dialogue system using reinforcement learning for in-car scenarios, developed at Edinburgh University and Cambridge University for the TALK project. This prototype is the first “Information State Update” (ISU) dialogue system to exhibit reinforcement learning of dialogue strategies, and also has a fragmentary clarification(More)
We report evaluation results for real users of a learnt dialogue management policy versus a hand-coded policy in the TALK project’s “TownInfo” tourist information system [1]. The learnt policy, for filling and confirming information slots, was derived from COMMUNICATOR (flight-booking) data using Reinforcement Learning (RL) as described in [2], ported to(More)
We present and evaluate an automatic annotation system which builds “Information State Update” (ISU) representations of dialogue context for the COMMUNICATOR (2000 and 2001) corpora of humanmachine dialogues (approx 2300 dialogues). The purposes of this annotation are to generate training data for reinforcement learning (RL) of dialogue policies, to(More)
Most studies on adapting voice interfaces to older users work top-down by comparing the interaction behavior of older and younger users. In contrast, we present a bottom-up approach. A statistical cluster analysis of 447 appointment scheduling dialogs between 50 older and younger users and 9 simulated spoken dialog systems revealed two main user groups, a(More)
Although older people are an important user group for smart environments, there has been relatively little work on adapting natural language interfaces to their requirements. In this paper, we focus on a particularly thorny problem: processing speech input from older users. Our experiments on the MATCH corpus show clearly that we need age-specific(More)