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Analysis of changes in viral load after initiation of treatment with potent antiretroviral agents has provided substantial insight into the dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The concentration of HIV-1 in plasma drops by approximately 99% in the first two weeks of treatment owing to the rapid elimination of free virus with a half-life(More)
The crystal structure of the conserved core of HIV-1 Nef has been determined in complex with the SH3 domain of a mutant Fyn tyrosine kinase (a single amino acid substitution, Arg-96 to isoleucine), to which Nef binds tightly. The conserved PxxP sequence motif of Nef, known to be important for optimal viral replication, is part of a polyproline type II helix(More)
NS1 (nonstructural protein 1) is an important virulence factor of the influenza A virus. We observed that NS1 proteins of the 1918 pandemic virus (A/Brevig Mission/1/18) and many avian influenza A viruses contain a consensus Src homology 3 (SH3) domain-binding motif. Screening of a comprehensive human SH3 phage library revealed the N-terminal SH3 of Crk and(More)
We have examined the differential binding of Hck and Fyn to HIV-1 Nef to elucidate the structural basis of SH3 binding affinity and specificity. Full-length Nef bound to Hck SH3 with the highest affinity reported for an SH3-mediated interaction (KD 250 nM). In contrast to Hck, affinity of the highly homologous Fyn SH3 for Nef was too weak (KD > 20 microM)(More)
Recruitment of cellular signaling proteins by the CD3 polypeptides of the TCR complex mediates T cell activation. We have screened a human Src homology 3 (SH3) domain phage display library for proteins that can bind to the proline-rich region of CD3epsilon. This screening identified Eps8L1 (epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8-like 1)(More)
The L-myc protein migrates as three distinct differentially phosphorylated bands in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). This phosphorylation can be rapidly increased either by treatment with the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or by inhibition of serine/threonine(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus Nef proteins contain a conserved motif with the minimal consensus (PxxP) site for Src homology region 3 (SH3)-mediated protein-protein interactions. Nef PxxP motifs show specific binding to biotinylated SH3 domains of Hck and Lyn, but not to those of other tested Src family kinases or less(More)
To address the significance of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), we have used reverse transcriptase-initiated PCR to measure HIV-1 mRNA expression in PBMC specimens collected from a cohort of HIV-infected individuals during a long-term prospective study. We found dramatic differences in HIV mRNA(More)
To study the basis of cellular latency of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), we have used a recombinant luciferase-encoding HIV (HXB-Luc) to superinfect nonproductively HIV-1-infected human leukemic cell lines. HXB-Luc contains the Photinus pyralis luciferase gene in place of the nef gene and provides a highly sensitive, simple assay for HIV infection and(More)
We have recently identified the Nef-associated serine-threonine kinase (NAK) as the p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2). Here we have taken advantage of the possibility to manipulate the functional properties of NAK by transfecting PAK2 cDNA or its mutant derivatives in order to further characterize the Nef-NAK complex. To exclude the possibility that some Nef(More)