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Analysis of changes in viral load after initiation of treatment with potent antiretroviral agents has provided substantial insight into the dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The concentration of HIV-1 in plasma drops by approximately 99% in the first two weeks of treatment owing to the rapid elimination of free virus with a half-life(More)
The crystal structure of the conserved core of HIV-1 Nef has been determined in complex with the SH3 domain of a mutant Fyn tyrosine kinase (a single amino acid substitution, Arg-96 to isoleucine), to which Nef binds tightly. The conserved PxxP sequence motif of Nef, known to be important for optimal viral replication, is part of a polyproline type II helix(More)
Nef is a 27 - 34 kD myristoylated protein unique to primate lentiviruses. A functional Nef gene is important for development of high viremia and simian AIDS in SIV infected rhesus macaques (1). In a transgenic mouse model expression of Nef protein alone when expressed under a CD4-promoter is sufficient to cause an AIDS like disease (2). A critical role for(More)
Autoimmune regulator (AIRE) is a transcription factor that induces the expression of a large subset of otherwise strictly tissue restricted antigens in medullary thymic epithelial cells, thereby enabling their presentation to developing T cells for negative selection. Mutations in AIRE lead to autoimmune-polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy(More)
The Nef protein of primate immunodeficiency viruses plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) [1] [2]. The interaction of Nef with the Nef-associated kinase (NAK) is one of the most conserved properties of different human and simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV and SIV) Nef alleles. The role of NAK association(More)
Protein tyrosine phosphorylation controls many aspects of signaling in multicellular organisms. One of the major consequences of tyrosine phosphorylation is the creation of binding sites for proteins containing Src homology 2 (SH2) domains. To profile the global tyrosine phosphorylation state of the cell, we have developed proteomic binding assays(More)
HIV-1 pathogenicity factor Nef has been shown to modulate calcium signaling in host cells, but the underlying molecular mechanisms have remained unclear. Here we show that calcium/calcineurin-dependent activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) by Nef in Jurkat T cells requires the endoplasmic reticulum-resident inositol trisphosphate receptor(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection results in the activation of numerous stress responses including oxidative stress, with the potential to induce an apoptotic state. Previously we have shown that HCV attenuates the stress-induced, p38MAPK-mediated up-regulation of the K(+) channel Kv2.1, to maintain the survival of infected cells in the face of cellular(More)
Among the four non-structural proteins of alphaviruses the function of nsP3 is the least well understood. NsP3 is a component of the viral replication complex, and composed of a conserved aminoterminal macro domain implicated in viral RNA synthesis, and a poorly conserved carboxyterminal region. Despite the lack of overall homology we noted a(More)
In the infected host, the Nef protein of HIV/SIV is required for high viral loads and thus disease progression. Recent evidence indicates that Nef enhances replication in the T cell compartment after the virus is transmitted from dendritic cells (DC). The underlying mechanism, however, is not clear. Here, we report that a natural variability in the(More)