Kalle Saksela

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Analysis of changes in viral load after initiation of treatment with potent antiretroviral agents has provided substantial insight into the dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The concentration of HIV-1 in plasma drops by approximately 99% in the first two weeks of treatment owing to the rapid elimination of free virus with a half-life(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus Nef proteins contain a conserved motif with the minimal consensus (PxxP) site for Src homology region 3 (SH3)-mediated protein-protein interactions. Nef PxxP motifs show specific binding to biotinylated SH3 domains of Hck and Lyn, but not to those of other tested Src family kinases or less(More)
The crystal structure of the conserved core of HIV-1 Nef has been determined in complex with the SH3 domain of a mutant Fyn tyrosine kinase (a single amino acid substitution, Arg-96 to isoleucine), to which Nef binds tightly. The conserved PxxP sequence motif of Nef, known to be important for optimal viral replication, is part of a polyproline type II helix(More)
We have examined the differential binding of Hck and Fyn to HIV-1 Nef to elucidate the structural basis of SH3 binding affinity and specificity. Full-length Nef bound to Hck SH3 with the highest affinity reported for an SH3-mediated interaction (KD 250 nM). In contrast to Hck, affinity of the highly homologous Fyn SH3 for Nef was too weak (KD > 20 microM)(More)
NS1 (nonstructural protein 1) is an important virulence factor of the influenza A virus. We observed that NS1 proteins of the 1918 pandemic virus (A/Brevig Mission/1/18) and many avian influenza A viruses contain a consensus Src homology 3 (SH3) domain-binding motif. Screening of a comprehensive human SH3 phage library revealed the N-terminal SH3 of Crk and(More)
HIV-1 Nef has previously been shown to bind to Src homology-3 (SH3) domains of a subset of Src family tyrosine kinases. In addition, Nef has been reported to coprecipitate with a serine/threonine kinase activity termed NAK (for Nef-associated kinase). The identity of NAK remains uncertain, but it has been suggested to represent a novel member of the(More)
An increasing number of SH3 domain-ligand interactions continue to be described that involve the conserved peptide-binding surface of SH3, but structurally deviate substantially from canonical docking of consensus motif-containing SH3 ligands. Indeed, it appears that that the relative frequency and importance of these types of interactions may have been(More)
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 translocates 2 effectors to trigger localized actin assembly in mammalian cells, resulting in filamentous actin "pedestals." One effector, the translocated intimin receptor (Tir), is localized in the plasma membrane and clustered upon binding the bacterial outer membrane protein intimin. The second, the(More)
The L-myc protein migrates as three distinct differentially phosphorylated bands in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). This phosphorylation can be rapidly increased either by treatment with the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or by inhibition of serine/threonine(More)
The Nef protein of primate immunodeficiency viruses plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) [1] [2]. The interaction of Nef with the Nef-associated kinase (NAK) is one of the most conserved properties of different human and simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV and SIV) Nef alleles. The role of NAK association(More)