Kalijn F. Bol

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Regulatory T cells (Tregs) accumulate in tumors and can contribute to the dismal immune responses observed in these tumors. We reported that the percentage of tumor infiltrating Tregs is strongly correlated with the WHO grade of the brain tumor. We now report on the clinical follow-up of this patient cohort (n=83). Subgroup analyses in patients with(More)
The brain is a specialized immune site representing a unique tumor microenvironment. The availability of fresh brain tumor material for ex vivo analysis is often limited because large parts of many brain tumors are resected using ultrasonic aspiration. We analyzed ultrasonic tumor aspirates as a biosource to study immune suppressive mechanisms in 83 human(More)
How human CD34 + cell progenitors or monocytes can be differentiated in vitro into dendritic cells (DCs) by the combined administration of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) was first described in 1994. This boosted the enthusiasm for the use of DC vaccination in humans, resulting in the first clinical studies(More)
Autologous dendritic cell (DC) therapy is an experimental cellular immunotherapy that is safe and immunogenic in patients with advanced melanoma. In an attempt to further improve the therapeutic responses, we treated 15 patients with melanoma, with autologous monocyte-derived immature DC electroporated with mRNA encoding CD40 ligand (CD40L), CD70 and a(More)
Dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy is explored worldwide in cancer patients, predominantly with DC matured with pro-inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandin E2. We studied the safety and efficacy of vaccination with monocyte-derived DC matured with a cocktail of prophylactic vaccines that contain clinical-grade Toll-like receptor ligands (BCG, Typhim,(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the toxicity profile of dendritic cell (DC) vaccination in stage III and IV melanoma patients, and to evaluate whether there is a correlation between side effects and immunologic and clinical outcome. This is a retrospective analysis of 82 stage III and 137 stage IV melanoma patients, vaccinated with(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are central players in the induction of adaptive immune responses. Upon infection or inflammation , DCs take up antigens and migrate to lymphoid organs where they activate naïve antigen-specific T and B cells. This unique capacity of DCs is exploited worldwide for DC-based anticancer immunotherapy, a therapeutic approach aimed at(More)
PURPOSE To determine the effectiveness of adjuvant dendritic cell (DC) vaccination to induce tumor-specific immunological responses in stage III melanoma patients. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Retrospective analysis of stage III melanoma patients, vaccinated with autologous monocyte-derived DC loaded with tumor-associated antigens (TAA) gp100 and tyrosinase after(More)
BACKGROUND Ipilimumab has proven to be effective in metastatic melanoma patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of ipilimumab in advanced melanoma patients who showed progressive disease upon experimental dendritic cell (DC) vaccination. METHODS Retrospective analysis of 48 stage IV melanoma patients treated with ipilimumab after(More)