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PURPOSE Electroporation of dendritic cells (DC) with mRNA encoding tumor-associated antigens (TAA) has multiple advantages compared to peptide loading. We investigated the immunologic and clinical responses to vaccination with mRNA-electroporated DC in stage III and IV melanoma patients. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Twenty-six stage III HLA*02:01 melanoma patients(More)
The brain is a specialized immune site representing a unique tumor microenvironment. The availability of fresh brain tumor material for ex vivo analysis is often limited because large parts of many brain tumors are resected using ultrasonic aspiration. We analyzed ultrasonic tumor aspirates as a biosource to study immune suppressive mechanisms in 83 human(More)
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) accumulate in tumors and can contribute to the dismal immune responses observed in these tumors. We reported that the percentage of tumor infiltrating Tregs is strongly correlated with the WHO grade of the brain tumor. We now report on the clinical follow-up of this patient cohort (n=83). Subgroup analyses in patients with(More)
To evaluate the relevance of directing antigen-specific CD4(+) T helper cells as part of effective anticancer immunotherapy, we investigated the immunologic and clinical responses to vaccination with dendritic cells (DC) pulsed with either MHC class I (MHC-I)-restricted epitopes alone or both MHC class I and II (MHC-I/II)-restricted epitopes. We enrolled 33(More)
The identification of responding patients early during treatment would improve the capability to develop effective new immunotherapies more rapidly. Here, we describe a bioassay that may link early T-cell-mediated immune responses to later clinical benefits. This bioassay rests upon the tenet of immunotherapy that tumor-specific effector T cells capable of(More)
Dendritic cell (DC) vaccination in cancer patients aims to induce or augment an effective antitumor immune response against tumor antigens and was first explored in a clinical trial in the 1990s. More than two decades later, numerous clinical trials have been performed or are ongoing with a wide variety of DC subsets, culture protocols, and treatment(More)
Autologous dendritic cell (DC) therapy is an experimental cellular immunotherapy that is safe and immunogenic in patients with advanced melanoma. In an attempt to further improve the therapeutic responses, we treated 15 patients with melanoma, with autologous monocyte-derived immature DC electroporated with mRNA encoding CD40 ligand (CD40L), CD70 and a(More)
PURPOSE Thus far, dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy of cancer was primarily based on in vitro-generated monocyte-derived DCs, which require extensive in vitro manipulation. Here, we report on a clinical study exploiting primary CD1c(+) myeloid DCs, naturally circulating in the blood. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Fourteen stage IV melanoma patients, without(More)
Dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy is explored worldwide in cancer patients, predominantly with DC matured with pro-inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandin E2. We studied the safety and efficacy of vaccination with monocyte-derived DC matured with a cocktail of prophylactic vaccines that contain clinical-grade Toll-like receptor ligands (BCG, Typhim,(More)
How human CD34 + cell progenitors or monocytes can be differentiated in vitro into dendritic cells (DCs) by the combined administration of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) was first described in 1994. This boosted the enthusiasm for the use of DC vaccination in humans, resulting in the first clinical studies(More)