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How Retrieval Attempts Affect Learning: A Review and Synthesis
Diagnosing Criterion-Level Effects on Memory
The extent to which the criterion level affects associative memory, target memory, and cue memory is examined and it is shown that an increased criterion level enhanced associatives memory, as indicated by enhanced performance on forward and backward cued-recall tests and on tests of associative recognition.
When is guessing incorrectly better than studying for enhancing memory?
Experiment 1 revealed that incorrect guessing resulted in worse performance than did studying and that the number of incorrect guesses did not moderate the effect, while Experiment 2 revealed that the timing of subsequent study moderated the effectiveness of incorrect guessing over study.
Does the benefit of testing depend on lag, and if so, why? Evaluating the elaborative retrieval hypothesis
Across two experiments, final-test performance was greater following practice testing than following restudy only, and this memorial advantage was greater with long-lag than with short-lag practice testing, which provided consistent evidence for the ERH.
Effects of successive relearning on recall: Does relearning override the effects of initial learning criterion?
It is revealed that the substantial benefits of learning to a higher initial criterion during the first session do not persist across relearning sessions, and the implications of relearning-override effects are important for theory and for education.
Repeated retrieval practice and item difficulty: Does criterion learning eliminate item difficulty effects?
Although successful retrieval enhanced memory for both difficult and easy items, equating retrieval success during practice did not eliminate normative item difficulty differences.
Investigating and Explaining the Effects of Successive Relearning on Long-Term Retention
- K. Rawson, Kalif E. Vaughn, M. Walsh, J. Dunlosky
- EducationJournal of experimental psychology. Applied
- 12 February 2018
It is advocated that successive relearning is an important next frontier for educationally relevant memory research and formally tested the relearning attenuates decay (RAD) model.
Retrieval attempts enhance learning regardless of time spent trying to retrieve
During the initial retrieval attempt, more time did increase recall, suggesting that participants continued to engage in productive retrieval activities when given more time.
Effects of criterion level on associative memory: Evidence for associative asymmetry
Does testing impair relational processing? Failed attempts to replicate the negative testing effect.
- K. Rawson, Kathryn T. Wissman, Kalif E. Vaughn
- PsychologyJournal of experimental psychology. Learning…
- 11 May 2015
The weight of the evidence supports the conclusion that testing does not impair relational processing, as confirmed by Peterson and Mulligan (2013), which found negative testing effects on final free recall and on a measure of interitem relational processing.