Kala Venugopal

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The commercially important neoplastic diseases of poultry are Marek's disease, which is caused by a herpesvirus, and the avian leukoses and reticuloendotheliosis, which are caused by retroviruses. These diseases are responsible for economic loss due to both mortality and depressed performance. Marek's disease virus (MDV) and avian leukosis viruses (ALVs)(More)
The complete nucleotide sequence of two tick-transmitted flaviviruses, Vasilchenko (Vs) from Siberia and louping ill (LI) from the UK, have been determined. The genomes were respectively, 10928 and 10871 nucleotides (nt) in length. The coding strategy and functional protein sequence motifs of tick-borne flaviviruses are presented in both Vs and LI viruses.(More)
We have carried out an antigenic analysis and nucleotide sequence comparison of the envelope glycoprotein of recognized louping ill virus strains isolated from Scotland with that of a Norwegian virus known to cause encephalomyelitis in sheep. Monoclonal antibodies with defined specificity for the louping ill virus envelope glycoprotein failed to distinguish(More)
Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV) is a recently identified avian retrovirus associated with myeloid leukosis in meat-type chickens. The env gene of the HPRS-103 strain of ALV, the prototype of this subgroup, differs considerably from that of other subgroups, but shows close homology to the env-like sequences of members of the EAV family of endogenous(More)
The mode and tempo of arbovirus evolution and dispersal can help to explain the dynamics of pandemics, viral outbreaks, and emerging viruses. By comparing nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of their envelope proteins, we describe the continuous distribution of the tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) complex viruses, the most important flaviviruses in(More)
Marek's disease (MD) is a common lymphoproliferative disease of poultry caused by a highly contagious and oncogenic herpesvirus. In spite of the widespread use of highly effective MD vaccines, recently there have been worrying trends in the evolution of MD virus pathotypes towards greater virulence. In the last few years, there has been significant progress(More)
The existence of novel endogenous retrovirus elements in the chicken genome, designated EAV-HP, with close sequence identity to the env gene of avian leukosis virus (ALV) subgroup J has been reported (L. M. Smith, A. A. Toye, K. Howes, N. Bumstead, L. N. Payne, and K. Venugopal, J. Gen. Virol. 80:261-268, 1999). To resolve the genome structure of these(More)
The HPRS-103 strain of avian retrovirus is the prototype of subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) and causes myeloid leukosis in meat-type chickens. Using immunohistochemical detection of the viral groupspecific antigen (Gag) we have previously demonstrated that the induction of myeloid leukosis by ALV-J is associated with viral tropism for myelomonocytic(More)
Kyasanur Forest disease (KFD) virus is a highly pathogenic member of the family Flaviviridae producing a haemorrhagic disease in infected human beings. Despite this high pathogenicity and potential epidemiological importance, there have been relatively few detailed antigenic or molecular studies on KFD virus. The nucleotide sequences of the genes encoding(More)
The EAV-HP group of chicken endogenous retrovirus elements was previously shown to be defective, with large deletions of the pol gene. In this report, we demonstrate that genomes of other Gallus species also maintain EAV-HP elements with similar deletions. The chicken EAV-HP1 locus was detected in both red (Gallus gallus gallus) and Sonnerat's (Gallus(More)