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This paper describes a novel method to estimate sleep stage through noninvasive and unrestrained means. The Rechtschaffen and Kales (R-K) method is a standard to estimate sleep stage. However, it involves restraining the examinee and, thus, induces psychological stress. Furthermore, it requires specialists with a high degree of technical expertise and the(More)
We have developed a noninvasive pneumatics-based system by which to measure heartbeat, respiration, snoring, and body movements of a subject in bed. A thin, air-sealed cushion is placed under the bed mattress of the subject and the small movements attributable to human automatic vital functions are measured as changes in pressure using a pressure sensor(More)
Gait analysis is a valuable tool for obtaining quantitative information on motor deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD). Since the characteristic gait patterns of PD patients may not be fully identified by brief examination in a clinic, long-term, and unobtrusive monitoring of their activities is essential, especially in a nonclinical setting. This paper(More)
Gait analysis is widely recognized as a promising tool for obtaining objective information on the walking behavior of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. It is especially useful in clinical practices if gait properties can be captured with minimal instrumentation that does not interfere with the subject's usual behavioral pattern under ambulatory conditions.(More)
This paper describes a novel method that estimates sleep behaviors in a real-time manner. A Luenberger-type observer was employed, which requires a dynamic model of the sleep as a priori information about the sleep stages. A reasonable sleep model is essential in this approach. The classic Lotka–Voltera equation with interpretations associated with the(More)