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Leucine, as an essential amino acid and activator of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin), promotes protein synthesis and suppresses protein catabolism. However, the effect of leucine on overall glucose and energy metabolism remains unclear, and whether leucine has beneficial effects as a long-term dietary supplement has not been examined. In the present(More)
BACKGROUND Leucine may function as a signaling molecule to regulate metabolism. We have previously shown that dietary leucine supplementation significantly improves glucose and energy metabolism in diet-induced obese mice, suggesting that leucine supplementation could potentially be a useful adjuvant therapy for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Since the(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that inflammation/cytokines may modulate hypothalamic responses to leptin, which is a key regulator of energy homeostasis and inflammatory/stress responses. We investigated a possible role of TNF-α, a key early mediator of inflammation, in regulating the expression and trafficking of the long-isoform leptin receptor (LEPRb), the(More)
OBJECTIVE To understand the regulation of adipocyte size and adipokine expression in relation to gender, anatomic location, adiposity, and metabolic risk factors in adolescents with morbid obesity. METHODS Adipocyte size and adipokine expression in paired abdominal subcutaneous (SAT) and omental (VAT) surgical adipose tissues were related to gender,(More)
Leptin has profound effects on adipose tissue metabolism. However, it remains unclear whether direct leptin signaling in adipocytes is involved. We addressed this question by transplanting inguinal adipose tissue stromal vascular cells (SVCs) from 4- to 5-wk-old wild-type (WT) and leptin receptor-deficient [Lepr(db/db) (db)] mice to inguinal and sternal(More)
Although central leptin signaling appears to play a major role in the regulation of food intake and energy metabolism, the physiological role of peripheral leptin signaling and its relative contribution to whole-body energy metabolism remain unclear. To address this question, we created a mouse model (Cre-Tam mice) with an intact leptin receptor in the(More)
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