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A transmembrane aspartyl protease termed beta-site APP cleavage enzyme 1 (BACE1) that cleaves the amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP), which is abundant in neurons, is required for the generation of amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptides implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We now demonstrate that BACE1, enriched in neurons of the CNS, is a(More)
Activity-dependent changes in excitatory synaptic transmission in the CNS have been shown to depend on the regulation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptors (AMPARs). In particular, several lines of evidence suggest that reversible phosphorylation of AMPAR subunit glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1, also referred to as GluA1 or(More)
Adult-born dentate granule neurons contribute to memory encoding functions of the dentate gyrus (DG) such as pattern separation. However, local circuit-mechanisms by which adult-born neurons partake in this process are poorly understood. Computational, neuroanatomical and electrophysiological studies suggest that sparseness of activation in the granule cell(More)
A transmembrane aspartyl protease termed ␤-site APP cleavage enzyme 1 (BACE1) that cleaves the amyloid-␤ precursor protein (APP), which is abundant in neurons, is required for the generation of amyloid-␤ (A␤) peptides implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We now demonstrate that BACE1, enriched in neurons of the CNS, is a major(More)
In reward-based learning, synaptic modifications depend on a brief stimulus and a temporally delayed reward, which poses the question of how synaptic activity patterns associate with a delayed reward. A theoretical solution to this so-called distal reward problem has been the notion of activity-generated "synaptic eligibility traces," silent and transient(More)
AMPA receptor (AMPAR) channel properties and function are regulated by its subunit composition and phosphorylation. Certain types of neural activity can recruit Ca(2+)-permeable (CP) AMPARs, such as GluR1 homomers, to synapses likely via lateral diffusion from extrasynaptic sites. Here we show that GluR1-S845 phosphorylation can alter the subunit(More)
Regulation of synaptic AMPA receptors (AMPARs) is one of the key elements that allow the nervous system to adapt to changes in the sensory environment as well as for memory formation. One way to regulate AMPAR function is by reversible changes in the phosphorylation of its subunits. We recently reported that phosphorylation of the AMPAR subunit GluA1 (or(More)
Neuromodulatory input, acting on G protein-coupled receptors, is essential for the induction of experience-dependent cortical plasticity. Here we report that G-coupled receptors in layer II/III of visual cortex control the polarity of synaptic plasticity through a pull-push regulation of LTP and LTD. In slices, receptors coupled to Gs promote LTP while(More)
Loss of a sensory modality elicits both unimodal changes in the deprived cortex and cross-modal alterations in the remaining sensory systems. Unimodal changes are proposed to recruit the deprived cortex for processing the remaining senses, while cross-modal changes are thought to refine processing of spared senses. Hence coordinated unimodal and cross-modal(More)
Phosphorylation of various AMPA receptor subunits can alter synaptic transmission and plasticity at excitatory glutamatergic synapses in the central nervous system. Here, we identified threonine-840 (T840) on the GluR1 subunit of AMPA receptors as a novel phosphorylation site. T840 is phosphorylated by protein kinase C (PKC) in vitro and is a highly(More)