Kailapuri Gangatharan Murugavel

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AIM To screen for the co-infection of hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients in southern India. METHODS Five hundred consecutive HIV infected patients were screened for Hepatitis B Virus (HBsAg and HBV-DNA) and Hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV and HCV-RNA) using commercially available ELISA kits;(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfections and current risk behaviors among HIV-positive and -negative injection drug users (IDUs) in Chennai, India. METHODS Cross-sectional analysis of a convenience sample of 912 IDUs recruited between March 2004 and April 2005. Specimens were tested(More)
BACKGROUND It is estimated that there are up to 1.1 million injection drug users (IDUs) in India; the majority are likely married. We characterize HIV, hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) prevalence and the risk environment of a sample of spouses of IDUs. METHODS A cohort of 1158 IDUs (99% male) was recruited in Chennai, India from 2005-06. A(More)
BACKGROUND As the HIV epidemic continues to expand in India, empiric data are needed to determine the course of the epidemic for high-risk populations and the general population. METHODS Two probability surveys were conducted in Chennai slums among a household sample of men and alcohol venue patrons ("wine shops") to compare HIV and other sexually(More)
BACKGROUND While the spectrum of opportunistic infections due to HIV infection has been widely discussed, there are very limited data available in south India on certain incident infections especially urinary tract infections (UTI) in HIV-infected subjects. METHODS Bacterial aetiology of 350 symptomatic UTI in HIV-infected subjects and the drug resistance(More)
BACKGROUND The role of T-cell responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens in tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) is unclear. METHODS Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 45 HIV patients with treated TB, of whom 12 developed TB-IRIS, were collected at weeks 0, 2, and 6 of antiretroviral therapy (ART).(More)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen mutations may lead to immune escape and eventually cause failure of immunization. In this report, we identified immune escape variants in immunized babies born to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carrier mothers. A total of 68 babies were followed up for 2 years after the full course of vaccination; 2.9% (2/68) of(More)
Serial measurements of absolute CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts are required to initiate and gauge response to therapy and monitor disease progression. Hence, there is an urgent need to evaluate the accuracy and validity of low-cost CD4+ T-cell count assays. Tripotassium EDTA blood specimens from HIV-infected individuals were studied using a novel flow cytometric(More)
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) causes obstetric and gynaecological complications and non-chlamydial/non-gonococcal pelvic inflammatory disease and has been shown to be associated with the risk of acquiring HIV and herpes simplex (HSV)-2 infections. This study investigated both the prevalence of BV and its association with STDs among 582 female sex workers living(More)
BACKGROUND The reliability and validity of self-reports of vaginal microbicide use are questionable given the explicit understanding that participants are expected to comply with study protocols. Our objective was to optimize the use of Population Council's previously validated dye stain assay (DSA) and related procedures, and to establish predictive values(More)