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NL63 coronavirus (NL63-CoV), a prevalent human respiratory virus, is the only group I coronavirus known to use angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as its receptor. Incidentally, ACE2 is also used by group II SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). We investigated how different groups of coronaviruses recognize the same receptor, whereas homologous group I(More)
Upon recognition of viral components by pattern recognition receptors, such as the toll-like receptors (TLRs) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like helicases, cells are activated to produce type I interferon (IFN) and proinflammatory cytokines. These pathways are tightly regulated by the host to prevent an inappropriate cellular response, but(More)
How viruses evolve to select their receptor proteins for host cell entry is puzzling. We recently determined the crystal structures of NL63 coronavirus (NL63-CoV) and SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) receptor-binding domains (RBDs), each complexed with their common receptor, human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2), and proposed the existence of a(More)
Regulated gene expression and progeny production are essential for persistent and chronic infection by human pathogens, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), which affects >400 million people worldwide and is a major cause of liver disease. In this study, we provide the first direct evidence that a liver-specific microRNA, miR-122, binds to a highly conserved(More)
We previously reported that IL-27, which belongs to the IL-12 family of cytokines, is elevated in the serum of patients infected with influenza A virus (IAV). Here, we show that the expression of IL-27 was significantly up-regulated in A549 human lung epithelial cells and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells infected with IAV. Additionally, IAV(More)
High levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the acute stage associated with lung lesions were found in SARS patients. To evaluate the mechanisms behind this event, we investigated the roles of SARS-CoV proteins in the regulation of IL-6. Results showed that the viral nucleocapsid (N) protein activated IL-6 expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Promoter(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with numerous liver diseases and causes serious global health problems, but the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of HCV infections remain largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and B-cell lymphoma(More)
DNA demethylation plays an essential role in the reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) from latency infection. However, it is unclear how epigenetic modification is initiated in responding to stimuli. Here, we demonstrate that ERK/c-Jun signaling is involved in DNA demethylation of EBV immediate early (IE) gene Zta in response to(More)
Borna disease virus (BDV) is one of the infectious agents that causes diseases of the central nervous system in a wide range of vertebrate species and, perhaps, in humans. The phosphoprotein (P) of BDV, an essential cofactor of virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, is required for virus replication. In this study, we identified the gamma-aminobutyric acid(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the major causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It has been demonstrated that the overexpression of angiogenic factors are associated with the maintenance of liver neoplasia. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are important regulators of angiogenesis and are(More)